Skip to main content

Table 1 Methods used to estimate tobacco attributable mortality

From: Methodologies used to estimate tobacco-attributable mortality: a review

Method Data employed Data source Method applied to estimate mortality due to: Weaknesses Strengths Estimations calculated
Prevalence-based analysis in cohort studyes/SAMMEC (n = 52) Prevalence National Statistics Tobacco consumption, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), obesity, alcohol intake,... - Does not take latency into account. - Worldwide use. Attributable mortality for all causes.
  Relative Risks: Smokers, non-smokers and former smokers Cohort study    - Application of risks other than CPS.  
Method proposed by Peto and colleagues (n = 6) Relative Risks: Smokers and non-smokers CPS II Tobacco consumption. - Assumes constant worldwide lung cancer mortality rates among never smokers. - Worldwide use. Attributable mortality for all causes.
  Lung cancer death rates: Global (non smokers + smokers + former smokers), non-smokers and smokers. National Statistics/CPS II   - Assumes the same latency for all death causes related to tobacco. - Mortality estimation in absence of smoking prevalence.  
     - Does not take into account former smokers. - Takes latency into account for lung cancer.  
Basic method (n = 1) Lung cancer death rates National Statistics Tobacco consumption. - Partial view of attributable mortality (only used to estimate mortality by lung cancer). - Takes into account induction time. Lung cancer death rate attributable and not attributable to active smoking.
  Prevalence National statistics/Estimated   - Use of constants. - Estimates smoking-adjusted RR in different time periods.  
  Lung cancer relative risk Calculated   - High need of information.   
  Packs of cigarettes smoked National statistics/Estimated   - Rate ratios for former smokers.   
  Age of starting/giving up tobacco consumption National statistics/Estimated   - Assumes constant worldwide lung cancer mortality rates among never smokers.   
  Constants Previous studies     
Prevent method (n = 2) Composition of the population National Statistics Tobacco consumption and general scenarios of effective health promotion. - High need of information. -Takes into account the multiplicity of cause or effect. Attributable mortality for all causes.
  Mortality (population) and birth (women) rates National Statistics    - Proportional decrease in risk reduction related to time.  
  Latency and delay Previous studies    - To measure the results of intervention policies.  
  Time-Tendency of tobacco consumption. Personal interviews     
  Relative risks CPS II     
Prevalence-based analysis in case-control studyes (n = 4) Mortality observed National Statistics Tobacco consumption and exposure to ETS. - Case-control study design. - Specific risk dates. Attributable mortality for all causes.
  Exposure prevalence: case or controls Case-control study   - Recall bias.   
  Odds Ratios Case-control study     
Garfinkel's method (n = 2) Mortality observed National Statistics Tobacco consumption and alcohol intake. - Partial view of the attributable mortality (only used to estimate cancer mortality). - Necessary dates are few. Cancer deaths attributable to smoking.
  Cancer mortality rates in non smokers. American Cancer Society   - Assumes constant worldwide cancer mortality rates among never smokers. - Does not use risks or prevalence.  
Rogers' method (n = 1) Mortality observed (all causes) National Statistics Tobacco consumption. - Availability of mortality registries. - Risks calculated ad hoc. Attributable mortality for all causes.
  Prevalence (7 categories) Surveys   - Has a population representative survey about health-risks. - The population division is more reliable.  
  Odds Ratios Discrete-time hazard models   - Assumption: smoking status remains steady since the survey about health-risks.