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Table 4 Relationships between attitudes to work and mental health among prisoners and the unemployed (moderated regression).

From: Mental health (GHQ12; CES-D) and attitudes towards the value of work among inmates of a semi-open prison and the long-term unemployed in Luxembourg

    General Health Questionnaire [0–100] CES-Depression [0–100]
    b1 L952 U953 SE4 p5 b L95 U95 SE p
Prison inmates Intercept   81.4 37.8 125.1 21.9 < 0.001 63.9 20.6 107.2 21.8 0.004
- employment commitment Perceived importance of work   -0.28 -0.55 -0.01 0.14 0.043 -0.02 -0.29 0.25 0.14 0.905
- socio-psychological variables Empowerment   0.23 -0.27 0.73 0.25 0.361 -0.10 -0.59 0.40 0.25 0.695
  Self-esteem   -0.24 -0.53 0.04 0.15 0.096 -0.11 -0.39 0.18 0.14 0.465
  Social network; availability of social support   -0.06 -0.26 0.14 0.10 0.534 -0.19 -0.38 0.01 0.10 0.063
- socio-demographic variables Age 15–24 0 - - - - 0 - - - -
   25–34 -0.50 -11.4 10.3 5.4 0.927 3.2 -7.6 13.9 5.4 0.560
   35–44 -1.4 -15.2 12.3 6.9 0.836 -7.7 -21.3 5.9 6.8 0.265
   45 or more 0.01 -13.9 14.0 7.0 0.998 -3.6 -17.4 10.2 6.9 0.604
  Educational level Lower level 0 - - - - 0 - - - -
   Average level 4.4 -4.7 13.5 4.6 0.339 -16.4 -25.4 -7.4 4.5 < 0.001
   Higher level 11.9 -4.2 28.1 8.1 0.145 -10.4 -26.4 5.7 8.0 0.202
  Duration of work experience None 0 - - - - 0 - - - -
   Less than 24 months -10.5 -24.5 3.6 7.1 0.141 -1.6 -15.5 12.4 7.0 0.823
   24 months or more -5.3 -18.1 7.4 6.4 0.407 0.88 -11.8 13.6 6.4 0.890
  Considers self to be ill No 0 - - - - 0 - - - -
   Yes -6.9 -17.9 4.2 5.5 0.218 1.7 -9.2 12.7 5.5 0.756
Unemployed Intercept   63.0 40.2 85.8 11.5 < 0.001 85.5 62.9 108.2 11.4 < 0.001
- employment commitment Perceived importance of work   0.47 0.21 0.74 0.13 < 0.001 0.40 0.13 0.66 0.13 0.004
- socio-psychological variables Empowerment   -0.50 -1.0 0.01 0.25 0.054 -0.82 -1.3 -0.32 0.25 0.002
  Self-esteem   -0.47 -0.79 -0.15 0.16 0.004 -0.33 -0.65 -0.02 0.16 0.039
  Social network; availability of social support   0.05 -0.11 0.21 0.08 0.554 -0.07 -0.23 0.09 0.08 0.411
- socio-demographic variables Age 15–24 0 - - - - 0 - - - -
   25–34 0.47 -9.6 10.5 5.0 0.925 -8.8 -18.8 1.1 5.0 0.082
   35–44 8.0 -2.3 18.4 5.2 0.126 -5.4 -15.6 4.9 5.2 0.301
   45 or more 10.3 -0.27 20.9 5.3 0.056 -0.32 -10.8 10.2 5.3 0.952
  Level of education Lower level 0 - - - - 0 - - - -
   Average level -10.8 -19.0 -2.6 4.1 0.010 -7.8 -15.9 0.34 4.1 0.060
   Higher level 3.6 -5.5 12.8 4.6 0.432 0.75 -8.4 9.9 4.6 0.870
  Duration of work experience None 0 - - - - 0 - - - -
   Less than 24 months 8.2 -0.34 16.8 4.3 0.060 -0.68 -9.2 7.8 4.3 0.873
   24 months or more -8.0 -18.4 2.5 5.2 0.132 -0.71 -11.1 9.7 5.2 0.892
  Considers self to be ill No 0 - - - - 0 - - - -
   Yes 15.7 6.4 25.1 4.7 0.001 2.7 -6.5 12.0 4.6 0.556
  1. 1b: Parameter estimate; 2L95: Lower limit of the 95% confidence interval; 3U95: Upper limit of the 95% confidence interval; 4SE: Standard error; 5p: Significance level of the t-test.