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Table 3 Relationships between attitudes to work and mental health among prisoners and the unemployed (separated regressions).

From: Mental health (GHQ12; CES-D) and attitudes towards the value of work among inmates of a semi-open prison and the long-term unemployed in Luxembourg

    General Health Questionnaire [0–100] CES-Depression [0–100]
    b1 L952 U953 SE4 p5 b L95 U95 SE p
Prison inmates Intercept   81.4 46.8 116.0 17.0 < 0.001 63.9 9.3 118.6 26.9 0.023
- employment commitment Perceived importance of work   -0.28 -0.50 -0.07 0.11 0.012 -0.02 -0.36 0.32 0.17 0.923
- socio-psychological variables Empowerment   0.23 -0.17 0.63 0.19 0.244 -0.10 -0.72 0.53 0.31 0.752
  Self-esteem   -0.24 -0.47 -0.02 0.11 0.037 -0.11 -0.47 0.26 0.18 0.557
  Social network; availability of social support   -0.06 -0.22 0.09 0.08 0.426 -0.19 -0.43 0.06 0.12 0.136
- socio-demographic variables Age 15–24 0 - - - 0.993 0 - - - 0.473
   25–34 -0.50 -9.1 8.1 4.2   3.2 -10.4 16.7 6.7  
   35–44 -1.4 -12.3 9.4 5.3   -7.7 -24.9 9.5 8.4  
   45 or more 0.01 -11.0 11.1 5.4   -3.6 -21.1 13.8 8.6  
  Educational level Lower level 0 - - - 0.147 0 - - - 0.022
   Average level 4.4 -2.8 11.6 3.5   -16.4 -27.8 -5.0 5.6  
   Higher level 11.9 -0.84 24.7 6.3   -10.4 -30.5 9.8 9.9  
  Duration of work experience None 0 - - - 0.157 0 - - - 0.922
   Less than 24 months -10.5 -21.6 0.63 5.5   -1.6 -19.2 16.0 8.6  
   24 months or more -5.3 -15.5 4.8 5.0   0.88 -15.1 16.9 7.9  
  Considers self to be ill No 0 - - - 0.119 0 - - - 0.802
   Yes -6.9 -15.6 1.9 4.3   1.7 -12.1 15.5 6.8  
Unemployed Intercept   63.0 36.7 89.3 13.0 < 0.001 85.5 67.5 103.5 8.9 < 0.001
- employment commitment Perceived importance of work   0.47 0.17 0.78 0.15 0.003 0.40 0.19 0.61 0.10 < 0.001
- socio-psychological variables Empowerment   -0.50 -1.1 0.09 0.29 0.092 -0.82 -1.2 -0.42 0.20 < 0.001
  Self-esteem   -0.47 -0.84 -0.10 0.18 0.013 -0.33 -0.59 -0.08 0.12 0.010
  Social network; availability of social support   0.05 -0.14 0.23 0.09 0.603 -0.07 -0.19 0.06 0.06 0.297
- socio-demographic variables Age 15–24 0 - - - 0.355 0 - - - 0.093
   25–34 0.47 -11.1 12.0 5.7   -8.8 -16.7 -0.91 3.9  
   35–44 8.0 -3.9 19.9 5.9   -5.4 -13.5 2.8 4.0  
   45 or more 10.3 -1.9 22.5 6.0   -0.32 -8.7 8.0 4.1  
  Level of education Lower level 0 - - - 0.017 0 - - - 0.026
   Average level -10.8 -20.2 -1.4 4.7   -7.8 -14.2 -1.3 3.2  
   Higher level 3.6 -6.9 14.2 5.2   0.75 -6.5 8.0 3.6  
  Duration of work experience None 0 - - - 0.040 0 - - - 0.973
   Less than 24 months 8.2 -1.6 18.0 4.9   -0.68 -7.4 6.0 3.3  
   24 months or more -8.0 -20.0 4.0 6.0   -0.71 -8.9 7.5 4.1  
  Considers self to be ill No 0 - - - 0.005 0 - - - 0.455
   Yes 15.7 5.0 26.5 5.3   2.7 -4.6 10.1 3.6  
  1. 1b: Parameter estimate; 2L95: Lower limit of the 95% confidence interval; 3U95: Upper limit of the 95% confidence interval; 4SE: Standard error; 5p: Significance level of the F test.