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Table 4 Univariate and multivariable analysis of betel quid chewer to quit betel quid

From: Comparing factors affecting commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behavior in Taiwanese adults

Variable Item Univariate Multivariable
   Hazard Rate Ratio 95% Confidence Interval P-value Hazard Rate Ratio 95% Confidence Interval P-value
Sex Male 3.48 (2.44, 4.97) <.0001 1.73 (1.14, 2.64) 0.0107
  Female 1.00    1.00   
Education Literate 0.54 (0.41, 0.70) <.0001 0.46 (0.28, 0.76) 0.0026
  Primary school 0.95 (0.77, 1.16) 0.5986 0.59 (0.37, 0.95) 0.0294
  Junior high school 1.23 (0.94, 1.62) 0.1281 0.67 (0.40, 1.11) 0.1156
  Senior high school 1.62 (1.26, 2.09) 0.0002 0.74 (0.46, 1.21) 0.2309
  College and above 1.00    1.00   
Occupation Unemployed or non-technical 0.76 (0.62, 0.93) 0.0083 1.19 (0.59, 2.41) 0.6295
  Technical 1.14 (0.92, 1.43) 0.2301 1.17 (0.58, 2.39) 0.6584
  Semi-professional 1.71 (1.17, 2.50) 0.0058 1.46 (0.68, 3.12) 0.3315
  Managerial/professional and above 1.00    1.00   
Ethnicity Aborigines 0.29 (0.22, 0.37) <.0001 0.40 (0.30, 0.55) <.0001
  Non-aborigines 1.00    1.00   
Cigarette smoker Yes 1.64 (1.28, 2.09) <.0001 0.95 (0.73, 1.25) 0.7261
  No 1.00    1.00   
Alcohol drinker Yes 0.78 (0.63, 0.96) 0.0204 0.81 (0.65, 1.02) 0.0679
  No 1.00    1.00   
Type of quid Betel quid 0.48 (0.39, 0.58) <.0001 0.73 (0.50, 1.08) 0.1127
  Lao-hwa quid 2.63 (2.13, 3.25) <.0001 1.71 (1.13, 2.58) 0.0104
  Betel quid + Lao-hwa quid 2.08 (1.48, 2.94) <.0001 1.70 (1.04, 2.79) 0.0362
  Others 1.00    1.00   
Daily betel quid chewing amount (pieces) 1–9 pieces 1.00    1.00   
  10–19 pieces 0.99 (0.78, 1.26) 0.9385 0.81 (0.62, 1.06) 0.1276
  20–29 pieces 0.98 (0.77, 1.26) 0.8960 0.75 (0.56, 0.99) 0.0401
  30–99 pieces 0.87 (0.68, 1.10) 0.2489 0.69 (0.52, 0.90) 0.0070
  above 100 pieces 0.66 (0.36, 1.20) 0.1742 0.57 (0.30, 1.07) 0.0785