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Table 4 Relation between educational level and incident cases of first cardiovascular event (stroke or coronary event) in a low-risk population‡.

From: C-reactive protein, established risk factors and social inequalities in cardiovascular disease – the significance of absolute versus relative measures of disease

    Crude model Age- and sex-adjusted model
Educational level N (%) No. of cases Incidence rate (per 100 000) Hazard ratio (95% CI) † Absolute difference Incidence rate (per 100 000) Hazard ratio (95% CI) † Absolute difference
Less than 9 years of education 408 9 253 2.9 (0.6, 13.2) 163 229 2.0 (0.4, 9.1) 93
9 to 12 years of education 428 6 160 1.8 (0.4, 8.9) 70 182 1.5 (0.3, 7.6) 46
More than 12 years of education* 256 2 90 1.0 0 136 1.0 0
Total 1,092 17 151    193   
  1. *Reference category
  2. †CI; confidence interval
  3. ‡Low risk population includes those with no current smoking, no hypertension (i.e., systolic blood pressure above 160 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure above 90 mm Hg and/or treatment for hypertension), and no hyperlipidemia (i.e., total-cholesterol > = 6.5 mmol/L and/or triglycerides > 2.3 mmol/L and/or treatment for hyperlipidemia).