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Table 4 Use of residential wood heating in southern Québec for various respondents characteristics: percentages corrected for stratified sampling and p value

From: Use of residential wood heating in a context of climate change: a population survey in Québec (Canada)

  Wood heating p value1
Variables yes no  
Sociodemographic characteristics    
• Gender:    0.1885
• men 20.3%2 79,7%  
• women 18.2% 81.8%  
Age:    0.0004
• 18–34 years 16.2% 83.8%  
• 35–64 years 22.4% 77.6%  
• 65 years or more 14.5% 85.5%  
Status of activities (last 12 months):    0.0374
• employed 20.3% 79.7%  
• unemployed 21.8% 78.2%  
• student 11.6% 88.4%  
• retired 15.7% 84.3%  
Income before tax, from all sources (last 12 months):    < 0.0001
• < $45,000 16.8% 83.2%  
• ≥ $45,000 23.6% 76.4%  
• not disclosed 14.4% 85.6%  
First language learned at home:    < 0.0001
• French only 21.9% 78.2%  
• English only 4.9% 95.1%  
• other language in addition to French or English 20.6% 79.4%  
• language other than French and English 6.1% 93.9%  
Status as parent:    < 0.0001
• no children 14.7% 85.3%  
• adult children only 20.0% 80.0%  
• at least one minor child 23.2% 76.8%  
Cohabitation:    < 0.0001
• lives with other people (related or not) 21.0% 79.0%  
• lives alone 11.9% 88.1%  
Health status    
Perceived health status:    0.1624
• very good 20.1% 79.9%  
• good 19.8% 80.2%  
• average 15.6% 84.4%  
• bad 12.8% 87.2%  
Having at least one chronic disease diagnosed by a physician and having had it for at least six months    0.0809
• yes 16.9% 83.1%  
• no 20.0% 80.0%  
Observance of behaviours according to the preventive advice issued by health professionals    0.5748
• always 19.3% 80.7%  
• often 18.3% 81.7%  
• sometimes 21.8% 78.2%  
• rarely 17.6% 82.4%  
• never 19.4% 80.6%  
Perceived influence of extreme meteorological conditions (e.g., heat waves) on health:    0.0179
• a lot 15.2% 84.8%  
• average 15.4% 84.6%  
• not much 18.0% 82.0%  
• not at all 21.2% 78.8%  
Dwelling    
Type of dwelling:    < 0.0001
• house 28.1% 71.9%  
• apartment 2.6% 97.4%  
Perceived efficiency of the dwelling's insulation against moisture:    < 0.0001
• very good 25.2% 74.8%  
• good 18.9% 81.1%  
• average 15.6% 84.5%  
• poor 7.3% 92.7%  
Perceived efficiency of the dwelling's insulation against cold:    < 0.0001
• very good 24.5% 75.6%  
• good 20.4% 79.6%  
• average 12.8% 87.2%  
• poor 6.3% 93.8%  
Perceived efficiency of the dwelling's insulation against heat:    < 0.0001
• very good 27.1% 72.9%  
• good 19.9% 80.2%  
average 13.6% 86.4%  
• poor 3.7% 96.3%  
Addition of insulating materials since the dwelling was built:    < 0.0001
• yes 26.6% 73.4%  
• no 18.1% 81.9%  
• don't know 6.4% 93.6%  
Replacement of doors or windows since the dwelling was built:    0.3479
• yes 20.5% 79.5%  
• no 18.9% 81.1%  
Dwelling built before 19833:    0.1684
• yes 18.7% 81.3%  
• no 21.5% 78.5%  
• unknown4 17.4% 82.6%  
Region of residence    
Region lived in:    < 0.0001
• Eastern Québec 35.0% 65.0%  
• Northern part of southern Québec 34.8% 65.2%  
• Central Québec 30.7% 69.3%  
• Québec City region 23.0% 77.0%  
• North of Montréal 24.9% 75.2%  
• South of Montréal 21.9% 78.1%  
• Montréal and Laval 4.0% 96.0%  
Region of residence perceived as conducive to ice storms    0.0828
• a lot 15.2% 84.8%  
• average 19.6% 80.4%  
• not much 20.1% 79.9%  
• not at all 22.8% 77.2%  
Region of residence perceived as conducive to winter smog    0.0002
• a lot 11.6% 88.4%  
• average 15.8% 84.2%  
• not much 20.2% 79.8%  
• not at all 23.3% 76.7%  
Region of residence perceived as conducive to cold waves    0.0003
• a lot 14.0% 86.0%  
• average 21.8% 78.2%  
• not much 24.3% 75.7%  
• not at all 23.6% 76.4%  
Transport    
Frequency of use of an automobile:    < 0.0001
• daily 21.9% 78.1%  
• occasionally 21.5% 78.5%  
• never 6.8% 93.2%  
Use of a remote starter in winter    0.2007
• yes 23.4% 76.6%  
• no 20.8% 66.1%  
Consultation of meteorological information in the media    
• Temperature:    0.2666
• always 20.2% 79.8%  
• often 19.2% 80.8%  
• sometimes 19.5% 80.5%  
• rarely 17.7% 82.3%  
• never 12.5% 87.5%  
Smog warning:    0.1205
• always 17.3% 82.7%  
• often 16.4% 83.6%  
• sometimes 19.2% 80.8%  
• rarely 23.3% 76.7%  
• never 20.1% 79.9%  
Intense cold warning:    0.0594
• always 19.8% 80.2%  
• often 19.9% 80.1%  
• sometimes 21.9% 78.1%  
• rarely 15.4% 84.6%  
• never 13.6% 86.4%  
Belief of the contribution of anthropogenic causes to climate change in the last fifty years:    0.1904
• a lot 19.4% 80.6%  
• average 18.5% 81.5%  
• not much 22.7% 77.3%  
• not at all 15.6% 84.4%  
Prohibition of wood heating when there is winter smog:    < 0.0001
• completely agree 10.4% 89.6%  
• somewhat agree 17.5% 82.5%  
• somewhat disagree 24.2% 75.8%  
• completely disagree 38.5% 61.5%  
  1. 1Wood heating was related to the independent variables using the Rao-Scott likelihood ratio chi-square test, which is a design-adjusted version of the Pearson chi-square test.
  2. 2The total percentages for a given variable may not be exactly 100%, due to rounding to the closest decimal. To simplify the presentation, percentages below 2% for missing data have not been reported.
  3. 3In 1983, the Law on Conservation of energy in buildings was adopted in Québec to insure a minimal performance of the thermal insulation in walls and ceilings.
  4. 4Among these respondents (< 5% of the participants), 73,3% lived in apartments.