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Table 2 Effects of characteristics of waterpipe smokers and duration of smoking on rise in exhaled carbon monoxide concentration

From: Waterpipe smoking in students: Prevalence, risk factors, symptoms of addiction, and smoke intake. Evidence from one British university

Characteristic N (%) Unadjusted coefficient (95%CI) for ppm rise in CO Adjusted2 coefficient (95%CI) for ppm rise in CO
Duration of session 29.6 (10.1)1 15.8 (11.0–20.6)3 14.8 (9.3–20.3)3
Age of participant in years 22.8 (4.3)1 1.8 (0.4–3.2)4 -0.1 (-1.4–1.2)4
Ethnic group    
   White and others 43 (68.3) Reference Reference
   Asian 28 (44.4) -15.5 (-29.4–1.7) -5.6 (-18.4–7.2)
   Arab 15 (23.8) 3.7 (-12.5–19.9) -1.9 (-15.3–11.5)
Gender    
   Male 49 (77.8) 15.9 (5.1–26.6) 6.4 (-6.9–19.6)
   Female 14 (22.2) Reference Reference
  1. 1 Mean (SD).
  2. 2 Adjusted for all variables in table.
  3. 3 For a 10 minute increase in duration.
  4. 4 For a 1 year increase in age.