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Table 2 Univariate associations of possibly predictive variables with overweight

From: Predictors of overweight and obesity in five to seven-year-old children in Germany: Results from cross-sectional studies

Variables Prevalence of overweight (%) P value Odds Ratio [OR]
Sex    
   Male 13.77 (N = 18,032) < 0.0001 Female vs Male 1.31 (1.23–1.38)
   Female 17.25 (N = 17,402)   
Age group    
   5.0 – < 5.5 17.50 (N = 80) 0.02 Per unit increase in age group: 1.04 (1.00 – 1.08)
   5.5 – < 6.0 14.53 (N = 8,498)   
   6.0 – < 6.5 15.77 (N = 16,977)   
   6.5 – < 7.0 15.92 (N = 9,265)   Per unit increase in age: 1.12 (1.03 – 1.22)
   7.0 – < 7.5 12.35 (N = 502)   
   7.5 – < 8.0 18.75 (N = 112)   
Nationality    
   German 14.85 (N = 32,413) < 0.0001 Other than German vs German 1.68 (1.52 – 1.84)
   Other than German 22.61 (N = 2,733)   
Study region    
   East 14.34 (N = 23,998) < 0.0001 East vs West 0.77 (0.72–0.82)
   West 17.87 (N = 11,436)   
Study location    
   Urban 15.86 (N = 26,981) 0.0004 Urban vs Rural 1.13 (1.06–1.22)
   Rural 14.26 (N = 8,453)   
Parental educational level    
   < 10 years of schooling 19.43 (N = 3,902) < 0.0001*** Per unit increase in educational level 0.79 (0.75–0.82)
   10 years of schooling 16.29 (N = 15,233)   0.81 (0.74–0.88)*
   > 10 years of schooling 13.13 (N = 14,849)   0.63 (0.57–0.69)*
Living space    
   <= 75 m2 16.74 (N = 17,213) < 0.0001 >75 m2 vs <= 75 m2 0.82 (0.77 – 0.87)
   > 75 m2 14.13 (N = 16,882)   
No. of persons in the child's living place   < 0.0001 *** Per unit increase in no. of persons: 0.91 (0.88–0.94)
Single child    
   No 14.42 (N = 23,148) < 0.0001 Yes vs No: 1.26 (1.19 – 1.34)
   Yes 17.49 (N = 11,849)   
Attendance of day nursery    
   No 15.87 (N = 14,718) 0.02 Yes vs No: 0.93 (0.88 – 0.99)
   Yes 14.98 (N = 19,108)   
Smoking in the living place    
   No 14.14 (N = 18,266) < 0.0001 Yes vs No: 1.28 (1.21–1.36)
   Yes 17.45 (N = 14,942)   
Passive smoking during the first three years of life    
   No 14.74 (N = 11,084) < 0.0001 Yes vs No: 1.17 (1.10 – 1.25)
   Yes 16.84 (N = 23,609)   
Smoking during pregnancy    
   No 15.04 (N = 29,833) < 0.0001 Yes vs No: 1.26 (1.16 – 1.36)
   Yes 18.19 (N = 4,745)   
Breastfeeding for more than three months    
   No 15.79 (N = 22,634) < 0.0001 Yes vs No: 0.86 (0.81 – 0.92)
   Yes 13.94 (N = 10,472)   
Preterm delivery    
   No 15.63 (N = 32,313) 0.01 Yes vs No: 0.85 (0.75 – 0.96)
   Yes 13.56 (N = 2,227)   
Birth weight    
   < 2500 g 9.77 (N = 2,006) < 0.0001*** Per unit increase in birth weight category
1.31 (1.27 – 1.35)
   2500 – < 3000 g 11.92 (N = 5,916)   1.25 (1.06 – 1.48)**
   3000 – < 3500 g 14.12 (N = 13,340)   1.52 (1.30 – 1.77)**
   3500 – < 4000 g 17.58 (N = 10,251)   1.97 (1.69 – 2.30)**
   > 4000 g 24.09 (N = 3,296)   2.93 (2.48 – 3.47)**
  1. *compared to educational level I (< 10 years of schooling)
  2. **compared to low birth weight (< 2500 g)
  3. ***Cochran-Armitage Trend Test