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Table 3 Crude and Adjusted Odds Ratios for Any Birth Defect – Role of PGW-Related Exposures

From: Reproductive health and pregnancy outcomes among French gulf war veterans

  Cases (n = 131) Controls (n = 262) Univariate analysis Adjusted analysis *
  n % n % OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p
Mission in GW        0.17    0.31
   Before Jan. 1991 12 9.2 35 13.4 1.00    1.00   
   After Feb. 1991 6 4.6 20 7.6 0.85 0.28–2.58   0.85 0.27–2.66  
   Only Jan-Feb. 1991 17 13.0 19 7.3 2.33 0.97–5.59   1.88 0.75–4.75  
   Other date of mission 96 73.3 188 71.7 1.43 0.70–2.91   1.61 0.76–3.40  
Location of mission        0.47    0.90
   Neither Iraq nor Kuwait 72 55.0 122 46.6 1.00    1.00   
   Kuwait only 10 7.6 23 8.8 0.73 0.32–1.66   0.74 0.30–1.78  
   Iraq only 41 31.3 96 36.6 0.72 0.44–1.17   0.97 0.53–1.78  
   Iraq and Kuwait 8 6.1 21 8.0 0.66 0.28–1.58   0.84 0.33–2.10  
Smoke of oil well fires           
   No 90 68.7 176 67.2 1.00    1.00   
   Yes 41 31.3 86 32.8 0.93 0.59–1.47 0.76 0.90 0.56–1.43 0.65
Sandstorm           
   No 25 19.1 49 18.7 1.00    1.00   
   Yes 106 80.9 213 81.3 0.98 0.58–1.65 0.93 1.15 0.57–2.31 0.69
Chemical alarms           
   No 46 32.1 66 25.2 1.00    1.00   
   Yes 85 64.9 196 74.8 0.63 0.40–0.99 0.05 0.61 0.36–1.06 0.08
Pesticides           
   No 86 65.7 178 67.9 1.00    1.00   
   Yes 45 34.4 84 32.1 1.11 0.70–1.78 0.64 1.00 0.61–1.63 0.99
  1. * adjusted odds ratio for age, service branch, rank, and military status