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Table 1 Prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in population-based studies from America

From: Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in population-based studies: Systematic review

    Prevalence of CKD
Author [ref.] year Country Study population, study design, number of participants, response, age, gender MDRD equation CG/BSA equation
Amato et al. [18] 2005 Mexico Randomly selected participants from primary care facilities in a large city, cross-sectional study, N = 3564, response NR, aged >18 yrs., gender NR. NR    Overall: 8.5%  
Brown et al. [19] 2005 USA Participants of the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) in 33 states, cross-sectional study, N = 6071, response NR, aged 18–101 yrs. (mean age: 52 yrs.), 32% males. Overall: 15.6%
Men: 14.4%, Women: 16.2%
   NR  
    Age (yrs.) Men Women   
    18–30 2.4% 2.7%   
    31–45 5.4% 6.4%   
    46–60 9.5% 11.5%   
    61–75 24.3% 29.9%   
    76+ 45.6% 45.0%   
Coresh et al. [20] 2005 USA Participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1999–2000), cross-sectional study, N = 4101, response NR, aged ≥ 20 yrs., 47.7% males. Overall: 3.8%
Men: 2.7%, women: 4.8%
White: 4.2%, African American: 3.4%, Mexican American: 1.2%, other: 3.2%
   NR  
    Age (yrs.)     
    20–39 0.5%    
    40–59 1.5%    
    60–69 6.2%    
    70+ 23.1%    
Coresh et al. [21] 2003 USA Participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III 1988–1994), cross-sectional study, N = 15600, response NR, aged ≥ 20 yrs., 47% males. Overall: 4.5%
Men: 3.6%, Women: 5.3%
White: 5.0%, African American: 3.3%, Mexican American: 1.0%, other: 2.2%
   Overall: 7.0%
Men: 6.3%, Women: 7.7%
White: 7.5%, African American: 7.8%, Mexican American: 1.8%, other: 4.1%
 
    Age (yrs.)    Age (yrs.)  
    20–39 0.2%   20–39 -
    40–59 1.8%   40–59 0.8%
    60–69 7.6%   60–69 10.5%
    70+ 24.9%   70+ 4 9.2%
Fox et al. [22] 2006 USA Participants from the sixth examination of the Framingham Offspring Study, cohort study, N = 3047, response NR, mean age: 59 yrs., 48% males. Overall: 8.6%    NR  
Garg et al. [23] 2004 Canada Participants from long-term care facilities in the elderly, retrospective cross-sectional study, N = 9931, response 85%, aged ≥ 65 yrs. (mean age: 82 yrs.), 26% males. Overall: 35.7%
Men: 27.1%, Women: 38.8%
   NR  
    Age (yrs.) Men Women   
    65–69 9.2% 22.8%   
    70–74 14.9% 23.8%   
    75–79 21.7% 29.2%   
    80–84 27.5% 35.2%   
    85–89 32.8% 41.9%   
    90–94 40.5% 47.3%   
    95+ 37.8% 50.7%   
Hemmelgarn et al. [24] 2006 Canada Participants from community-dwelling elderly in Calgary Health region, cohort study, N = 10184, response NR, aged ≥ 66 yrs., 42.6% males. Overall: 35.4%
Men: 32%, Women: 38.2%
   NR  
Kramer et al. [25] 2005 USA Participants of the Dallas Heart Study, cross-sectional survey, N = 2660, response NR, aged 30–65 yrs.(mean age: 43.9 yrs.), 49.5% males. Overall: 1.5%    NR  
Manjunath et al. [26] 2003 USA Participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), cohort study, N = 4893, response NR, aged ≥ 65 yrs. (mean age: 75.4 yrs.), 44.5% males. Overall: 23.4%
Men: 25%, Women: 22.2%
   NR  
McClellan et al. [27] 2006 USA Randomly selected participants of the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, cohort study, N = 20667, response NR, aged ≥ 45 yrs., 48.8% males. Overall: 43.3%
Men: 38.9%, Women: 47.5% White: 49.9%, African American: 33.7%
   NR  
    Age (yrs.)     
    45–54 19.3%    
    55–64 31.6%    
    65–74 51.3%    
    75–84 62.7%    
    85+ 71.0%    
  1. MDRD: simplified equation of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study.
  2. CG/BSA: Cockcroft-Gault formula adjusted by Body Surface Area.
  3. GFR: Glomerular Filtration Rate. NR: Not reported.