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Table 2 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics by HIV and foreign birth status*.

From: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, and foreign birth in North Carolina, 1993 – 2006

Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics HIV+ (%) N = 563 HIV – (%) N = 3,388 Foreign Born (%) N = 1,299 US Born (%) N = 4,821
Verification     
   Laboratory 516 (91.7) 2,873 (84.8) 1,070 (82.4) 4,070 (84.4)
   Clinical 16 (2.8) 383 (11.3) 163 (12.6) 579 (12.0)
   Provider 31 (5.5) 132 (3.9) 66 (5.1) 172 (3.6)
Site of disease     
   Extrapulmonary 151 (26.8) 757 (22.3) 402 (31.0) 964 (20.0)
   Pulmonary 412 (73.2) 2,631 (77.7) 897 (69.0) 3,857 (80.0)
HIV status     
   Positive    74 (7.8) 471 (9.8)
   Negative    943 (72.6) 2,444 (50.7)
   Not tested    264 (20.32) 1,906 (39.5)
Foreign-birth status     
   Foreign 92 (16.3) 943 (27.8)   
   United States 471 (83.7) 2,444 (72.1)   
   Missing 0 (0.0) 1 (0.0)   
Time in US     
   0 – 1 years 22 (23.9) 271 (28.7)   
   2 – 5 years 31 (33.7) 351 (37.2)   
   >5 years 34 (37.0) 305 (32.3)   
   Missing 5 (5.4) 16 (1.7)   
Sex     
   Female 122 (21.7) 1,101 (32.5) 474 (36.5) 1,649 (34.2)
   Male 441 (78.3) 2,287 (67.5) 825 (63.5) 3,172 (65.8)
Age (years)     
   0 – 4 1 (0.2) 64 (1.9) 17 (1.3) 133 (2.8)
   5 – 14 0 (0.0) 37 (1.1) 29 (2.2) 107 (2.2)
   15 – 24 11 (2.0) 330 (9.7) 257 (19.8) 165 (3.4)
   25 – 44 380 (67.5) 1,272 (37.5) 692 (53.3) 1,178 (24.4)
   45 – 64 165 (29.3) 1,138 (33.6) 225 (17.3) 1,527 (31.7)
   65+ 6 (1.1) 546 (16.1) 78 (6.0) 1,711 (35.5)
   Missing 1 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Previous TB disease     
   Yes 33 (5.9) 187 (5.5) 6 (5.1) 268 (5.6)
   No 529 (94.0) 3,198 (94.4) 1,230 (94.7) 4,550 (94.4)
   Missing 1 (0.2) 3 (0.1) 3 (0.2) 3 (0.1)
Homeless     
   Yes 106 (18.8) 265 (7.8) 37 (2.9) 372 (7.7)
   No 445 (79.0) 3,115 (92.0) 1,250 (96.2) 4,428 (91.9)
   Missing 12 (2.1) 8 (0.2) 12 (0.9) 21 (0.4)
Drug use (injecting)     
   Yes 48 (8.5) 42 (1.2) 6 (0.5) 92 (1.9)
   No 432 (76.7) 3,069 (90.6) 1,229 (94.6) 4,024 (83.5)
   Missing 83 (14.7) 277 (8.2) 64 (4.9) 705 (14.6)
Drug use (non-injecting)     
   Yes 171 (30.4) 364 (10.7) 40 (3.1) 540 (11.2)
   No 311 (55.2) 2,761 (81.5) 1,192 (91.8) 3,591 (74.5)
   Missing 81 (14.4) 263 (7.8) 67 (5.2) 690 (14.3)
Excess alcohol use     
   Yes 210 (37.3) 864 (25.5) 89 (6.9) 1,165 (24.2)
   No 278 (49.4) 2,289 (67.6) 1,143 (88.0) 2,993 (62.1)
   Missing 75 (13.2) 235 (6.9) 67 (5.2) 663 (13.8)
  1. * Excluding 292 (4.6%) with concomitant pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease; among remaining TB cases, 2,173 (33.5%) were not tested for HIV and 4 (0.1%) were missing foreign birth status.
  2. Laboratory: positive M. tuberculosis culture or positive acid-fast stain; Clinical: positive tuberculin skin test, signs and symptoms consistent with TB, treatment with TB medication, and a completed diagnostic evaluation; Provider: cases that do not meet the laboratory or clinical case definition, but have a clinical picture consistent with TB.
  3. Time in US prior to diagnosis among foreign born cases (n = 1,299).