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Table 2 Logistic regression analyses of factors associated with the use of acupuncture, chiropractic and osteopathy

From: Acupuncture, chiropractic and osteopathy use in Australia: a national population survey

Factors Acupuncture Odds ratio (95% CI*) Chiropractic Odds ratio (95% CI*) Osteopathy Odds ratio (95%CI*)
Post-secondary education    
   No 1.0 ... ...
   Yes 1.7 (1.0–2.7) ... ...
Income range    
   <A$20,000 ... 1.0 1.0
   A$20,000–A$40,000 ... 3.2 (1.5–7.3) 0.1 (0.0–0.4)
   >A$40,000 ... 3.8 (1.8–7.8) 0.6 (0.3–1.3)
Country of birth    
   Overseas ... 1.0 ...
   Australia ... 2.1 (1.2–3.4) ...
Consulted medical doctor in past 12 months    
   No 1.0 1.0 ...
   Yes 2.1 (1.0–4.2) 2.0 (1.1–3.5) ...
Visited medical doctor for back problems    
   No ... 1.0 1.0
   Yes ... 3.5 (1.4–8.4) 4.3 (1.1–16.4)
Omnibus Tests of Model Coefficients χ2-test (degrees of freedom, p value) 23.04 (3, < 0.0001) 60.24 (6, < 0.0001) 34.82 (4, < 0.0001)
  1. *95% confidence interval