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Table 3 Differences in prevalence rate of health problems by level of urbanization (N = 53,053; Boy = 27,359, Girl = 25,694)

From: Morbidity at elementary school entry differs by sex and level of residence urbanization: a comparative cross-sectional study

Level of urbanization Urban Suburban Rural F-value Scheffe's post hoc test
Health problem M SD M SD M SD   
Myopia 29.1 15.9 24.8 20.3 16.1 16.6 6.1** R<U, S
Caries 66.7 17.4 71.3 18.2 79.0 21.4 5.3** U<R
Obesity 8.5 6.2 10.3 6.9 7.4 7.1 1.8  
  1. Statistically significant differences between levels of urbanization: ** indicates p < .01.