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Table 4 Gender-specific hazard ratios and 95% C.I. for all cause and CVD mortality according to living alone at baseline

From: Living alone is a risk factor for mortality in men but not women from the general population: a prospective cohort study

Mortality Hazard Ratio** 95% C.I. P-value Hazard Ratio*** 95% C.I. P-value
Men         
Total mortality* 2.07 1.66 2.60 <0.0001 1.96 1.56 2.46 <0.0001
Cardiovascular mortality* 2.13 1.52 2.99 <0.0001 2.00 1.41 2.83 <0.0001
Women         
Total mortality* 1.12 0.88 1.42 0.36 1.11 0.87 1.41 0.41
Cardiovascular mortality* 1.06 0.73 1.53 0.77 1.02 0.70 1.48 0.94
  1. * compared for persons who live alone with those who don't after multivariable adjustment
  2. ** adjusted for age and survey
  3. *** final model men: adjusted for age, survey, number of friends, prevalent MI and diabetes, hypertension, self rated health, obesity, participation in screening, dentist visits, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking
  4. final model women: adjusted for age, survey, prevalent diabetes, hypertension, self rated health, participation in screening, dentist visits, physical activity, smoking