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Table 1 Study overview (included studies).

From: Meta-analysis of the relation between European and American smokeless tobacco and oral cancer

Study First author, year of publication Region Study perioda Designb Sex Case definition (or at risk populationc)d Controls (or years of follow-upc) Matching factorse
1 Broders
1920 [74]
USA up to 1920 CCH M+F NS No lip cancer NS
2 Moore
1953 [57]
USA 1951–1952 CCH M 50+ years No cancer NS
3 Wynder
1957 [58]
USA up to 1957 CCH Mf NS Benign diseases, lymphoma, skin and gastrointestinal cancer Age, rel, ins, ses
4 Peacock
1960 [93]
USA 1952–1958 CCH M+F With data on tobacco habits No oral cancer Sex, race, ins
5 Vogler
1962 [62]
USA 1956–1957 CCH M+F Incident and prevalent No oral cancer None
6 Vincent
1963 [94]
USA up to 1963 CCH Mg Incident Successive gastrointestinal patients Age
7 Martinez
1969 [95]
Puerto Rico 1966 CCH/P M+F Incident in 1966 Patients without cancer and community controls Age, sex
8 Keller
1970 [75]
USA 1958–1962 CCH M Discharged with complete records No oral cancer Age, hosp, time
9 Browne
1977 [96]
UK 1957–1971 CCP M+F NS Community controls Age, sex, occ, area
10 Williams
1977 [97]
USA 1969–1971 CCH M+F Incident, Third National Cancer Survey No tobacco- or alcohol-related cancers None
11 Wynder
1977 [98]
USA 1969–1975 CCH M Histologically confirmed No tobacco-related diseases Age, race, area
12 Westbrook
1980 [63]
USA 1955–1975 CCH F Incident Unstated hospital controls Age, time
13 Winn
1981 [13]
USA 1975–1978 CCH F Incident and death certificate No oral cancer or mental disease Age, race, type, area
14 Wynder
1983 [99]
USA 1977–1980 CCH Mf Histologically confirmed No tobacco-related diseases Age, race, hosp, ins
15 Stockwell
1986 [65]
USA 1982 CCP M+F Cancer registry 1982 Melanoma or endocrine cancer None
16 Blot
1988 [100]
USA 1984–1985 CCP M+F Incident Population controls Age, sex, area, race
17 Spitz
1988 [101]
USA 1985–1987 CCH M+F Registered 1985–1986, completed questionnaire, histologically confirmed with squamous cell carcinoma of defined sites No squamous cell carcinoma Age, sex
18 Franco
1989 [102]
Brazil 1986–1988 CCH M+F Incident, not lip or salivary glands No cancer or mental disorder Age, sex, area, time
19 Blomqvist
1991 [103]
Sweden up to 1991 CCH M+F NS No cancer Age, sex
20 Maden
1992 [104]
USA 1985–1989 CCP M Squamous cell, 18–65 years, with residential telephone Population controls Age, time
21 Sterling
1992 [67]
USA 1986 CCP M+F Registered in National Mortality Followback Study 1986, age 25+ years Population controls None
22 Zahm
1992 [72]
USA 1954–1980 Cohort M US veterans who returned questionnaire on tobacco use in 1954 or 1957 Mortality 1954–1980 NA
23 Mashberg
1993 [68]
USA 1972–1983 CCH M Incident in 1972–1983, US veterans No cancer or dysplasia of pharynx, larynx, lung or oesophagus None
24 Perry
1993h
USA about 1992 CCH M+F NS Cardiovascular diseases NS
25 Kabat
1994 [59]
USA 1977–1990 CCH M+F Incident No tobacco-related diseases Age, sex, race, hosp, time
26 Bundgaard
1995 [105]
Denmark 1986–1990 CCP M+F Histologically confirmed Population controls Age, sex, area
27 Lewin
1998 [64]
Sweden 1988–1990 CCP M Incident and registered, not identified at autopsy Population controls Age, area
28 Muscat
1998 [106]
USA 1977–1990 CCH M+F Incident, not mentally impaired No tobacco-related diseases Age, sex, race, time
29 Schildt
1998 [73]
Sweden 1980–1989 CCP M+F Histologically confirmed, not deceased without a relative Population controls Age, sex, area, vit
30 Schwartz
1998 [69]
USA 1990–1995 CCP M+F Histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma, 18–65 years Population controls Age, sex
31 Boffetta
2005 [82]
Norway 1966–2001 Cohort M Population sample and relatives of migrants to USA Incidence 1966–2001 NA
32 Henley
2005 [66]
USA 1959–2000 Cohort M Never smokers in Cancer Prevention Study I (CPS I) and II (CPS II) Mortality CPS I : 1959 to 1972 CPS II : 1982 to 2000 NA
  1. a In studies 3 and 6 the starting year of collection of cases was not given
  2. b CCH = case control with hospital controls, CCP = case control with population controls
  3. c For cohort studies
  4. d NS = not stated
  5. e NS = not stated, NA = not applicable, rel. = religion, ins. = insurance status, hosp. = hospital, time = period of admission, occ. = occupation, type = incident or decedent, vit. = vital status
  6. f Exposure data only available for males
  7. g Insufficient information for females
  8. h Attributable oral cancer risk due to smokeless tobacco use based on a case-control study at Sinai Hospital in Detroit; unpublished