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Table 3 Association between invalid self-reported non-smoking and diabetes, education, and race/ethnicity-gender, 45+ year olds, United States, 1988–1994

From: Sociodemographic characteristics and diabetes predict invalid self-reported non-smoking in a population-based study of U.S. adults

Explanatory Variable ORAdj 95%CI p-value
Diabetes vs No Diabetes 3.15 (1.35–7.34)* 0.01
Not HS Graduate vs HS Graduate 2.05 (1.30–3.22)* <0.01
NHB Females vs NHW Females 1.96 (1.17–3.28)* 0.01
NHW Females vs MA Females 2.62 (0.74–9.29) 0.13
NHW Males vs NHW Females 1.31 (0.77–2.23) 0.32
NHB Females vs MA Females 5.12 (1.41–18.58)* 0.01
NHB Females vs NHB Males 2.38 (0.93–6.09) 0.07
MA Males vs MA Females 2.24 (0.42–11.99) 0.34
NHW Males vs NHB Males 1.59 (0.76–3.33) 0.21
NHW Males vs MA Males 1.52 (0.56–4.18) 0.41
MA Males vs NHB Males 1.04 (0.36–3.01) 0.94
  1. Bold font identifies the statistically significant associations (* p < 0.05).
  2. Note, all adults did not currently use smokeless tobacco, pipe, cigars, or nicotine gum, and had serum cotinine data. Invalid self-report was defined as "true" smokers self-reporting as non-smokers. Valid self-report was defined as "true" smokers self-reporting as smokers.
  3. HS: High School; NHW: Non-Hispanic White; NHB: Non-Hispanic-Black: MA: Mexican-American