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Table 2 Number (unweighted) and percent (weighted) of invalid self-reported non-smoking by "true" smokers by age, gender, race/ethnicity and disease status, United States, 45+ year olds, 1988–1994

From: Sociodemographic characteristics and diabetes predict invalid self-reported non-smoking in a population-based study of U.S. adults

TRUE SMOKERS WITH DIABETES
  Age-specific       
  45+ year olds 45–64 years old 65+ years old       
  CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker       
SR smoker 119 85.0% 72 87.7% 46 80.2%       
SR nonsmoker 19 15.0% 8 12.3% 11 19.8%       
  Gender and race-specific
  NHW females NHB females MA females NHW males NHB males MA males
  CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker
SR smoker 20 87.7% 24 74.6% 12 92.4% 15 78.5% 22 94.2% 21 100.0%
SR nonsmoker 3 12.3% 7 25.4% 1 7.6% 5 21.5% 3 5.8% 0 0.0%
TRUE SMOKERS WITHOUT DIABETES
  Age-specific       
  45+ year olds 45–64 years old 65+ years old       
  CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker       
SR smoker 1251 94.9% 889 97.0% 362 88.1%       
SR nonsmoker 93 5.1% 40 3.0% 53 11.9%       
  Gender and race-specific
  NHW females NHB females MA females NHW males NHB males MA males
  CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker
SR smoker 297 95.5% 160 90.5% 78 97.5% 282 94.3% 221 94.7% 167 93.2%
SR nonsmoker 16 4.5% 21 9.5% 3 2.5% 24 5.7% 17 5.3% 11 6.8%
TRUE SMOKERS WITH MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
  Age-specific       
  45+ year olds 45–64 years old 65+ years old       
  CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker       
SR smoker 97 93.6% 55 98.1% 42 84.4%       
SR nonsmoker 10 6.4% 4 1.9% 6 15.6%       
  Gender and race-specific
  NHW females NHB females MA females NHW males NHB males MA males
  CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker
SR smoker 18 93.4% 13 86.0% 3 100.0% 35 94.2% 17 91.9% 7 63.0%
SR nonsmoker 1 6.6% 2 14.0% 0 0.0% 4 5.8% 2 8.1% 1 37.0%
TRUE SMOKERS WITHOUT MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
  Age-specific       
  45+ year olds 45–64 years old 65+ years old       
  CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker       
SR smoker 1264 94.2% 898 96.3% 366 87.6%       
SR nonsmoker 102 5.8% 44 3.7% 58 12.4%       
  Gender and race-specific
  NHW females NHB females MA females NHW males NHB males MA males
  CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker
SR smoker 298 95.0% 166 88.2% 85 96.7% 262 93.4% 225 94.8% 182 95.8%
SR nonsmoker 18 5.0% 26 11.8% 4 3.3% 25 6.6% 18 5.2% 10 4.2%
TRUE SMOKERS WITH HYPERTENSION
  Age-specific       
  45+ year olds 45–64 years old 65+ years old       
  CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker       
SR smoker 395 93.0% 263 94.8% 132 88.4%       
SR nonsmoker 42 7.0% 19 5.2% 23 11.6%       
  Gender and race-specific
  NHW females NHB females MA females NHW males NHB males MA males
  CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker
SR smoker 92 91.9% 78 87.3% 18 97.1% 80 94.5% 84 93.8% 33 84.4%
SR nonsmoker 8 8.1% 13 12.7% 1 2.9% 9 5.5% 8 6.2% 3 15.6%
TRUE SMOKERS WITHOUT HYPERTENSION
  Age-specific       
  45+ year olds 45–64 years old 65+ years old       
  CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker       
SR smoker 970 94.7% 695 97.0% 275 86.8%       
SR nonsmoker 69 5.3% 28 3.0% 41 13.2%       
  Gender and race-specific
  NHW females NHB females MA females NHW males NHB males MA males
  CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker CD smoker
SR smoker 225 96.1% 105 89.0% 72 96.8% 218 93.1% 158 95.1% 152 95.7%
SR nonsmoker 11 3.9% 14 11.0% 3 3.2% 20 6.9% 12 4.9% 8 4.3%
  1. Note, unweighted number with weighted percent. Bold font identifies the unweighted number and weighted percent of "true" smokers self-reporting as non-smokers.
  2. All adults did not currently use smokeless tobacco, pipe, cigars, or nicotine gum, and had serum cotinine data.
  3. "True" smokers were defined as having 15+ng/ml serum cotinine. Invalid self-report was defined as "true" smokers self-reporting as non-smokers. Valid self-report was defined as "true" smokers self-reporting as smokers.
  4. SR: self-reported, CD: cotinine-determined; NHW = Non-Hispanic White; NHB = Non-Hispanic Black; MA = Mexican-American