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Table 4 Adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for prevalence of tooth loss

From: Cigarette smoking and tooth loss experience among young adults: a national record linkage study

   Males Females
Study variable Criteria Adjusted OR (95% CI) P value Adjusted OR (95% CI) P value
Smoking status Non- 1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)  
  Former 1.25 (0.55–2.86) 0.5971 0.52 (0.23–1.18) 0.1197
  Current 2.21 (1.40–3.50) 0.0007 1.70 (1.13–2.55) 0.0111
Frequency of brushing ≥2 times 1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)  
  < 2 times 0.97 (0.64–1.48) 0.8945 1.59 (1.03–2.44) 0.0350
Body mass index < 25.0 1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)  
  ≥25.0 1.28 (0.83–1.96) 0.2640 2.00 (1.31–3.04) 0.0013
Alcohol consumption Never 1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)  
  Former 1.05 (0.34–3.30) 0.9287 1.95 (0.75–5.06) 0.1685
  Current 1.17 (0.77–1.78) 0.4565 1.48 (0.90–2.44) 0.1205
Intake of Vitamin C ≥100 mg 1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)  
  < 100 mg 1.01 (0.67–1.53) 0.9559 0.81 (0.59–1.11) 0.1899
Intake of Vitamin E* ≥10/8 mg 1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)  
  < 10/8 mg 1.16 (0.77–1.76) 0.4756 1.10 (0.81–1.50) 0.5398
  1. *10 mg for males and 8 mg for females
  2. Adjusting for frequency of brushing, body mass index, alcohol consumption, intake of Vitamin C and E