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Table 2 Multivariate logistic regression models of cocaine only and opiate only and both cocaine and opiate overdose deaths among all accidental drug decedents ages 15–64, New York City, 1990–2000*

From: Cocaine- and opiate-related fatal overdose in New York City, 1990–2000

  Cocaine only overdose deaths Opiate only overdose deaths Cocaine and opiate overdose deaths
  Adjusted Adjusted Adjusted
Characteristics OR 95 CI OR 95 CI OR 95 CI
Sex       
   Female REF --- REF --- REF ---
   Male 0.77 0.68–0.87 1.22 1.08–1.38 1.05 0.94–1.17
Race/ethnicity       
   White REF --- REF --- REF ---
   Black 3.23 2.85–3.67 0.36 0.32–0.41 0.94 0.84–1.04
   Hispanic 1.37 1.19–1.58 0.78 0.69–0.87 1.06 0.94–1.18
Age       
   15–24 REF --- REF --- REF ---
   25–34 1.41 1.07–1.88 0.68 0.54–0.84 1.15 0.93–1.43
   35–44 1.35 1.02–1.78 0.86 0.69–1.06 0.98 0.80–1.21
   45–54 1.81 1.36–2.41 0.92 0.73–1.15 0.73 0.58–0.91
   55–64 2.95 2.09–4.17 0.80 0.58–1.09 0.49 0.36–0.67
Borough of death       
   Manhattan REF --- REF --- REF ---
   Bronx 1.02 0.89–1.17 1.13 0.99–1.28 0.90 0.80–1.02
   Brooklyn 1.04 0.92–1.19 1.46 1.29–1.65 0.70 0.63–0.79
   Queens 1.05 0.89–1.24 1.34 1.15–1.55 0.75 0.66–0.86
   Staten Island 1.28 0.90–1.81 1.30 0.96–1.76 0.67 0.49–0.90
Place of OD episode       
   Other inside (not residence) REF --- REF ---   
   Residence 0.96 0.84–1.10 1.09 0.96–1.23   
   Outside 1.27 1.05–1.54 0.86 0.71–1.04   
Cannabis detected       
   no REF ---    REF ---
   yes 0.85 0.69–1.03    1.27 1.08–1.49
Alcohol detected       
   no REF --- REF --- REF ---
   yes 0.53 0.48–0.59 1.39 1.26–1.53 1.20 1.10–1.32
Year of death       
   1990 REF --- REF --- REF ---
   1991 1.25 0.96–1.62 0.80 0.62–1.04 0.99 0.78–1.25
   1992 1.12 0.86–1.45 0.77 0.61–1.00 1.12 0.89–1.42
   1993 0.80 0.62–1.03 0.81 0.64–1.03 1.39 1.12–1.73
   1994 0.98 0.76–1.26 0.76 0.60–0.97 1.27 1.02–1.58
   1995 0.74 0.58–0.96 1.00 0.79–1.27 1.23 0.99–1.53
   1996 1.01 0.78–1.30 1.05 0.83–1.35 0.95 0.75–1.19
   1997 0.90 0.69–1.17 1.34 1.05–1.71 0.82 0.65–1.04
   1998 0.85 0.65–1.11 1.03 0.81–1.33 1.10 0.87–1.39
   1999 0.85 0.65–1.12 1.21 0.94–1.57 0.94 0.73–1.20
   2000 0.74 0.57–0.97 1.31 1.03–1.68 0.96 0.76–1.22
  1. *analysis restricted to decedents with opiates-only, cocaine only, and both opiates and cocaine detected