Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Bivariate associations of cocaine only, opiate only, and both cocaine and opiate overdose deaths among all accidental drug overdose decedents ages 15–64, New York City, 1990–2000*

From: Cocaine- and opiate-related fatal overdose in New York City, 1990–2000

  Total Cocaine only overdose deaths Opiate only overdose deaths Opiate and cocaine overdose deaths
Characteristics N % N % p-value N % p-value N % p-value
Total 8774 100.0 2392 27.3 --- 2825 32.2 --- 3557 40.5 ---
Sex            
   Female 1807 20.6 630 34.9 <0.001 478 26.5 <0.001 699 38.7 0.071
   Male 6967 79.4 1762 25.3   2347 33.7   2858 41.0  
Race/ethnicity            
   White 2948 33.6 486 16.5 <0.001 1242 42.1 <0.001 1220 41.4 <0.001
   Black 3234 36.9 1348 41.7   671 20.7   1215 37.6  
   Hispanic 2592 29.5 558 21.5   912 35.2   1122 43.3  
Age            
   15–24 419 4.8 70 16.7 <0.001 170 40.6 <0.001 179 42.7 <0.001
   25–34 2369 27.0 573 24.2   704 29.7   1092 46.1  
   35–44 3788 43.2 977 25.8   1242 32.8   1569 41.4  
   45–54 1834 20.9 602 32.8   609 33.2   623 34.0  
   55–64 364 4.1 170 46.7   100 27.5   94 25.8  
Borough of death            
   Manhattan 2798 32.0 769 27.5 0.085 783 28.0 <0.001 1246 44.5 <0.001
   Bronx 2110 24.1 579 27.4   641 30.4   890 42.2  
   Brooklyn 2391 27.3 684 28.6   850 35.5   857 35.8  
   Queens 1273 14.6 311 24.4   469 36.8   493 38.7  
   Staten Island 176 2.0 49 27.8   82 46.6   71 40.3  
Cannabis detected            
   no 8076 92.0 2248 27.8 <0.001 2602 32.2 0.880 3226 39.9 <0.001
   yes 698 8.0 144 20.6   223 31.9   331 47.4  
Alcohol detected            
   no 5070 57.8 1663 32.8 <0.001 1460 28.8 <0.001 1947 38.4 <0.001
   yes 3704 42.2 729 0.2   1365 36.9   1610 43.5  
Place of OD episode            
   Other inside 1122 13.4 257 22.9 <0.001 363 32.4 0.002 502 44.7 0.015
   Residence 6359 75.7 1697 26.7   2109 33.2   2553 40.1  
   Outside 918 10.9 291 31.7   250 27.2   377 41.1  
Day of the week            
   Monday-Thursday 4647 53.0 1306 28.1 0.061 1484 31.9 0.586 1857 40.0 0.240
   Friday-Sunday 4127 47.0 1086 26.3   1341 32.5   1700 41.2  
Year of death            
   1990 506 5.8 148 29.2 <0.001 155 30.6 <0.001 203 40.1 <0.001
   1991 708 8.1 247 34.9   184 26.0   277 39.1  
   1992 772 8.8 233 30.2   210 27.2   329 42.6  
   1993 1014 11.6 241 23.8   288 28.4   485 47.8  
   1994 994 11.3 283 28.5   266 26.8   445 44.8  
   1995 979 11.2 231 23.6   317 32.4   431 44.0  
   1996 852 9.7 250 29.3   290 34.0   312 36.6  
   1997 806 9.2 219 27.2   314 39.0   273 33.9  
   1998 737 8.4 193 26.2   251 34.1   293 39.8  
   1999 651 7.4 169 26.0   247 37.9   235 36.1  
   2000 755 8.6 178 23.6   303 40.1   274 36.3  
  1. *analysis restricted to decedents with opiates-only, cocaine only, and both opiates and cocaine detected