Skip to main content

Table 3 Model-based* predicted probability estimates (95% confidence intervals) for self-reported health behaviors from multivariate models adjusting simultaneously for educational attainment and income. Translating Research Into Action (TRIAD) Study.

From: Educational disparities in health behaviors among patients with diabetes: the Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) Study

Socioeconomic Indicator Smoking (%) Regular exercise (%) Daily foot self-exam (%) Health-seeking behavior (%) Daily SMBG† (%)
Educational attainment      
Less than High School graduate 22.9 (19.9–26.2) 45.6 (41.5–49.6) 70.4 (65.6–74.8) 22.8 (19.4–26.6) 72.2 (66.4–77.3)
High School graduate 17.3 (15.4–19.3) 44.2 (41.1–47.5) 65.9 (62.2–69.4) 25.0 (22.1–28.1) 76.0 (71.9–79.8)
Some college/trade school 18.2 (16.4–20.2) 48.5 (45.3–51.6) 68.6 (65.1–72.0) 31.1 (28.0–34.4) 75.5 (71.5–79.1)
College graduate 11.0 (9.2–13.1) 48.3 (44.7–52.0) 67.7 (62.7–72.2) 33.3 (29.7–37.1) 76.3 (71.1–80.8)
p-value < 0.0001 0.08 0.5 < 0.0001 0.7
Income      
< $15 K 21.1 (18.2–24.3) 37.2 (33.5–41.1) 69.5 (65.1–73.6) 24.5 (21.1–28.3) 74.4 (69.1–79.1)
$15 K – $40 K 18.6 (16.7–20.7) 45.2 (42.1–48.3) 68.0 (64.6–71.2) 28.8 (25.8–32.0) 76.6 (72.8–80.1)
$40 K – $75 K 15.9 (13.9–18.1) 50.1 (46.7–53.5) 68.0 (63.7–72.1) 29.2 (26.0–32.6) 71.9 (66.8–76.4)
> $75 K 12.79 (10.7–15.4) 55.9 (51.9–59.9) 64.9 (58.9–70.4) 31.7 (27.9–35.8) 78.4 (72.4–83.4)
p-value 0.0012 < 0.0001 0.7 0.04 0.2
  1. * Each behavior is modeled separately using hierarchical logistic regression models, specifying random intercepts for health plan and adjusting for demographics (sex, age, race or ethnicity), socioeconomic indicators (only the one specified as the table row heading), severity measures (diabetes treatment, comorbidity score, duration of diabetes), comorbidity score, depressive symptoms, and employment status.
  2. †Insulin users only and adjusted for coverage for test strips