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Table 2 Distribution of household level demographic and socio-economic characteristics (number and percentage in parentheses for the binary variables: 1–10, and average for the continuous variables: 11–18) in low and high risk areas for enteric fever

From: Comparisons of predictors for typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Kolkata, India

Variables A B C A vs. C B vs. C A vs. B
  TRA* (n = 1581) PRA (n = 1487) LRA (n = 6951) OR (P-value) OR (P-value) OR (P-value)
Demographics
Percent household members under 15 years (mean, %) 28% 24% 23% 5.32 (<.001) 1.12 (.09) 5.20 (<.001)
Percent illiterate household members (mean, %) 28% 25% 23% 3.00 (.001) 1.62 (.08) 1.31 (.22)
Illiterate household head 453 (29%) 399 (27%) 1675 (24%) 1.19 (.005) 1.14 (.05) 1.06 (.48)
Muslim households 1075 (68%) 528 (36%) 1861 (27%) 6.63 (<.001) 1.52 (<.001) 4.29 (<.001)
Socio-economic status
Renting accommodation 1217 (77%) 1049 (71%) 4531 (65%) 1.67 (<.001) 1.26 (<.001) 1.31 (.001)
Household owning refrigerator 238 (15%) 269 (18%) 1108 (16%) 0.98 (.86) 1.19 (.02) 0.83 (.06)
Household owning phone 157 (10%) 208 (14%) 1063 (15%) 0.66 (<.001) 0.92 (.31) 0.72 (.005)
Water supply, sanitation, and hygiene
Household using latrine for defecation 1362 (86%) 1453 (98%) 6573 (95%) 0.34 (<.001) 2.41 (<.001) 0.14 (<.001)
Always wash hands after defecation 871 (55%) 1105 (74%) 4851 (70%) 0.55 (<.001) 1.26 (<.001) 0.44 (<.001)
Using tap water for drinking 1457 (92%) 1445 (97%) 6901 (99%) 0.07 (<.001) 0.24 (<.001) 0.32 (<.001)
Drinking water neither boiled nor filtered 1464 (93%) 1364 (92%) 6384 (92%) 1.02 (.85) 0.96 (.70) 1.04 (.73)
Never/rarely consume food from street vendor 435 (28%) 898 (60%) 2765 (40%) 0.61 (<.001) 2.35 (<.001) 0.25 (<.001)
Location
Distance to water bodies from the household (meters) 131 119 156 -30.21 (<.001) -38.76 (<.001) 11.34 (<.001)
Population within a 50 meter radius 3158 2629 2052 961.83 (<.001) 541.52 (<.001) 406.93 (<.001)
  1. *TRA = Typhoid high risk areas
  2. PRA = Paratyphoid high risk areas
  3. LRA = Low risk areas of typhoid and paratyphoid
  4. Age adjusted odds ratios with two-tailed p-values (given in parenthesis) were calculated for the cited binary variables (1–10) using logistic regression, and age adjusted parameter estimates with two-tailed p-values (given in parenthesis) were calculated for the cited continuous variables (11–18) using ordinary regression.
  5. A total of 589 households living in the high risk areas of both typhoid and paratyphoid were removed from the analysis.