Skip to main content

Table 1 Predictors of risk for typhoid and paratyphoid fever in the slums of Kolkata, India, 2003–2004

From: Comparisons of predictors for typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Kolkata, India

Variables A B C A vs. C B vs. C A vs. B
  Typhoid fever Cases (n = 80) Paratyphoid fever Cases (n = 47) Neither typhoid nor paratyphoid (n = 56,819) OR* (P-value) OR* (P-value) OR* (P-value)
Demographics
Age (mean, in years) 14.7 17.1 27.9 0.94 (<.01) 0.95 (<.01) 0.98 (.23)
Female 37 (46%) 19 (40%) 26,147 (46%) 0.97 (.91) 0.77 (.39) 1.25 (.54)
Illiterate 30 (38%) 12 (25%) 14,547 (26%) 1.28 (.30) 0.78 (.48) 1.74 (.17)
Percent household members under 15 years (mean, %) 35% 28% 29% 0.99 (.43) 0.98 (.04) 1.01 (.20)
Percent illiterate household members (mean, %) 35% 24% 27% 1.00 (.32) 0.99 (.20) 1.01 (.06)
Illiterate household head 29 (36%) 11 (23%) 16,117 (28%) 1.23 (.36) 0.68 (.27) 2.19 (.07)
Muslim individuals 46 (58%) 21 (45%) 23,749 (42%) 1.33 (.20) 0.84 (.55) 1.63 (.18)
Socio-economic status
Renting accommodation 63 (79%) 29 (62%) 38,950 (69%) 1.44 (.18) 0.64 (.14) 2.26 (.04)
Household owning refrigerator 4 (5%) 3 (6%) 9,956 (18%) 0.28 (.01) 0.36 (.08) 0.74 (.71)
Household owning phone 4 (5%) 2 (4%) 8,745 (15%) 0.36 (.05) 0.29 (.08) 1.03 (.96)
Water supply, sanitation, and hygiene
Household uses latrine for defecation 79 (99%) 46 (98%) 52,858 (93%) 5.32 (.09) 3.16 (.25) 1.78 (.68)
Always wash hands after defecation 47 (59%) 31 (66%) 38,227 (67%) 0.77 (.25) 1.02 (.92) 0.71 (.38)
Using tap water for drinking 76 (95%) 47 (100%) 55,641 (98%) 0.37 (.06) -- --
Drinking water neither boiled nor filtered 77 (96%) 45 (96%) 52,392 (92%) 1.72 (.35) 1.57 (.53) 1.16 (.86)
No/rarely taken food from street vendor 39 (49%) 23 (49%) 22,783 (40%) 1.50 (.07) 1.50 (.16) 0.97 (.94)
Location
Distance to water bodies from the household (meters) 152 149 152 0.99 (.35) 0.99 (.47) 1.00 (.90)
Population within a 50 meter radius 3065 2962 2560 1.00 (.25) 1.00 (.49) 1.00 (.88)
  1. *OR, odds ratio adjusted for subject's age in a model using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) with the logit link function. The first variable "subject's age" is not adjusted