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Table 3 Representative quotes from focus-groups and interviews

From: Use of formative research in developing a knowledge translation approach to rotavirus vaccine introduction in developing countries

Quote Respondent Country
A. Perceptions and knowledge of diarrheal disease   
"The problem of diarrhea is quite serious; it has to do with hygiene habits especially, and with dietary habits." MOH Official Nicaragua
"It is not an important health problem because of low-mortality rate. Parents would seek early medical consultation. Most cases are mild diarrhea." Community Health Nurse Thailand
"Lack of knowledge regarding sanitation and hygiene, and myths and beliefs among rural populations about diarrhea leads to seriousness of the cases." Public Health Care Provider India
"It is a social problem and depends on water supply, and personal nutrition and hygiene." Medical School Professor Ukraine
"Due to negligence, people do not react immediately to the symptoms of the disease." District-level private health care provider India
B. Knowledge of rotavirus and rotavirus vaccines   
"We don't know what the rotavirus is." Nurse Ukraine
". . .Maybe a little [knowledge of rotavirus] . . . I only know that it causes diarrhea." General practitioner Thailand
"Rotavirus is prevailing in western countries only. Diagnosis for rotavirus is not done in India. Not aware of vaccine." State level health advisor India
"It is a water borne disease. But one does not know about its prevalence in India." Public health provider India
"Not yet, not yet. I have not been informed about rotavirus diarrhea or the vaccine." Policy maker Indonesia
C. Other causes of diarrheal disease   
"We know that viruses are the main cause of diarrhea, but don't know which." Pediatrician Ukraine
"The causes of diarrhea are mostly food-borne infections, both bacterial and viruses. Most of our cases are viral." General practitioner Thailand
"Eating mutton and chicken, eating food without washing hands, and living in unclean surroundings are causes of diarrhea." Private Health Care Provider India
D. Prevention of Diarrheal Disease   
"Invest in campaign programs, especially during the peak season of diarrhea. Collaborate with community health centers focusing on hand washing, clean and safe food." Advisor, Ministry of Health Thailand
"Dispose dust and garbage on day to day basis. Dispose of infant stools properly and wash hands." Village-level Public Health Provider India
"In order to prevent diarrhea: exclusive breastfeeding." Ministry of Health official Nicaragua
"In previous times we had a lot of printing materials and posters regarding prevention of diarrheal disease and personal hygiene, now we don't have these." Pharmacist Ukraine
E. Diarrheal Disease Treatment   
"Oral rehydration therapy is the best." Ministry of Health Official Nicaragua
"Most physicians don't even realize that decrease in death rates among infants in the past few years is due to broader implementation of rehydration therapy." Medical School Professor Ukraine
"The challenges [for treatment]: the culture of each individual, self medication, many purge their children and they come in dehydrated, they stop giving them food because they say it hurts them." Private physician Nicaragua
"Mothers stop breast feeding the child with diarrhea. This leads to seriousness." Public Health care provider, Village level, Indian Village Level Public Health Care Provider India
"People frequently use self-treatment with antibiotics, and this is bad." Pediatrician Ukraine
F. Zinc treatment   
"Do not know much [about zinc]. It is still under study." District-Level Public Health Care Provider India
"We have never heard about zinc but think that regular use of yogurts can protect from gastroenteritis." Pediatrician Ukraine