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Table 3 Urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP) and extent of primary DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes in exposed workers and control subjects. Data reported as the group mean values (± SEM) of individual: urinary concentration of 1OHP (expressed as μg 1OHP/g creatinine), averaged tail intensity values (% of DNA migrated in the comet tail evaluated in 150 cells) and number of AST.

From: Primary DNA damage and genetic polymorphisms for CYP1A1, EPHX and GSTM1 in workers at a graphite electrode manufacturing plant

  1OHP DNA damage
   Averaged counts AST
Exposed    
   Total 2.64 ± 0.29* 5,28 ± 0,21* 11,75 ± 0,81*
   ≤ 40 years 2,96 ± 0,43* 4,63 ± 0,36 9,59 ± 1,35
   > 40 years 2,49 ± 0,37* 5,58 ± 0,26* 12,73 ± 0,99*
   Employment ≤ 10 years 2,23 ± 0,34 4,90 ± 0,29 10,14 ± 1,16
   Employment > 10 years 2,84 ± 0,40 5,47 ± 0,28 12,55 ± 1,05
   Non smokers 2.85 ± 0.47* 5.47 ± 0.30* 12,81 ± 1,14*
   Smokers 2.43 ± 0.34* 5.11 ± 0.31 10,71 ± 1,14*
Controls    
   Total 0.15 ± 0.02 4,33 ± 0,22 7,50 ± 0,98
   ≤ 40 years 0.17 ± 0.03 4.34 ± 0.35 6,83 ± 1,51
   > 40 years 0,14 ± 0,02 4,33 ± 0,28 7,88 ± 1,29
   Non smokers 0.10 ± 0.02 4.23 ± 0.31 8,36 ± 1,60
   Smokers 0.20 ± 0.02§ 4.44 ± 0.32 6,60 ± 1,12
  1. * p < 0.05, exposed vs. controls; § p < 0.05, non-smokers vs. smokers. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test (two-tailed).