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Table 3 Actual BMI and changes in BMI by level of income and education in 1990 and 2001

From: Changes in body mass index by age, gender, and socio-economic status among a cohort of Norwegian men and women (1990–2001)

  1990 2001 1990–2001
  BMI kg/m2 BMI kg/m2 BMI unit change¶
  Mean (SE) F (p-value) Mean (SE) F (p-value) Mean (SE) F (p-value)
Men       
Education       
   Low 24.8 (0.24)   26.4 (0.31)   1.6 (0.18)  
   Middle 24.6 (0.22) 0.27 (0.76) 26.4 (0.25) 0.35 (0.71) 1.6 (0.15) 0.10 (0.91)
   High 24.6 (0.22)   26.1 (0.25)   1.5 (0.14)  
Income Level       
   Urban       
Low 24.0 (0.30)   26.1 (0.38)   2.1 (0.22)  
Middle 24.5 (0.29) 1.5 (0.25) 26.3 (0.36) 0.44 (0.64) 1.7 (0.21) 0.79 (0.45)
High 24.8 (0.32)   26.7 (0.39)   1.9 (0.23)  
   Rural       
Low 24.6 (0.31)   26.0 (0.36)   1.3 (0.21)  
Middle 24.4 (0.31) 6.3 (0.001)** 25.5 (0.36) 4.2 (0.02)* 0.98 (0.20) 0.80 (0.45)
High 26.2 (0.38)   27.1 (0.43)   0.98 (0.25)  
Women       
Education       
   Low 23.5 (0.29)   25.1 (0.36)   1.8 (0.22)  
   Middle 22.6 (0.23) 3.3 (0.03)* 24.5 (0.27) 1.4 (0.25) 1.8 (0.17) 0.04 (0.96)
   High 22.4 (0.26)   24.4 (0.26)   1.8 (0.16)  
Income Level       
   Urban       
Low 22.0 (0.26)   23.8 (0.31)   1.8 (0.21)  
Middle 22.3 (0.33) 0.21 (0.82) 23.9 (0.38) 0.45 (0.64) 1.6 (0.26) 0.67 (0.51)
High 22.2 (0.38)   24.3 (0.44)   2.1 (0.30)  
   Rural       
Low 23.5 (0.39)   25.3 (0.55)   1.8 (0.26)  
Middle 23.6 (0.47) 0.24 (0.78) 25.1 (0.54) 0.14 (0.87) 1.5 (0.31) 0.29 (0.74)
High 23 1 (0 45)   25 0 (0 51)   1 8 (0 29)  
  1. Age-controlled results shown. Estimated marginal means and standard errors are depicted. BMI, body mass index.
  2. ¶ Year 2001 education and income level used in formula; * significant at p ≤ 0.05 level; ** significant at p ≤ 0.01 level.