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Table 3 Pregnancy risk factors and relative risks (OR, 95% CI) of adverse pregnancy outcomes of women with insufficient antenatal care

From: Under-attending free antenatal care is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes

Pregnancy risk factors
Study [9] [31] [16] [8] [18] Present study1
n, population 10382 two months national cohort, register data 85066 6 months hospital based cohort, clinical records (20 clinics) 21 722 Case-control, postpartum interview 17765 two months cohort of nine maternity units, clinical records 8065 one month cohort of six hospitals, clinical records 23 614 twelve years hospital based register data
Country Jamaica France Ten European countries England and Wales USA Finland
Inadequate antenatal care 4% 1.1% 5.9% 7% 10.2% 1.8%
Age < 18 1.7 (1.2–2.2)3 2.8 (1.2–6.6)2 3.7 (2.7–5.1) 2.5 (2.0–3.0) NA 1.29 (0.60–2.74)
Unmarried 1.6 (1.1–2.2) 9.3 (6.0–14.3)1 3.1 (2.5–3.9) NA NA 1.88 (1.56–2.25)
Multiparous (> 4) 1.5 (0.9–2.4) 34.9 (15.7–77.8)2 4.3 (3.1–6.0) NA 2.26 (1.76–2.90) 2.03 (0.74–5.54) 4
Unplanned pregnancy 2.8 (1.6–4.7) NA 4.0 (3.3–4.7) NA NA NA
No health insurance NA 7.6 (2.2–26.8)2 2.7 (2.1–3.4) NA 7.67 (5.96–9.86) NA
Smoking 2.5 (1.8–3.4) NA NA 1.6 (1.4–1.9)2 NA 1.87(1.39–2.52)
Alcohol consumption 0.7 (0.5–0.9) NA NA NA NA 1.48(0.98–2.25)
Pregnancy outcome
Study [6] [32] [31] [18] Present study1  
n 344 57108 85066 8065 23 614  
n, population Register based study (religional minority, national obstetric statistics) One year national cohort, register data 6 months hospital based cohort, clinical records (20 clinics) one month cohort of six hospitals, clinical records Mothers Under-attending antenatal care Mothers Not-attending antenatal care
Country USA Finland France USA Finland  
Preterm birth NA 2.21 (1.95–2.51)2 5.8 (3.2–10.5)2 3.23 (2.62–3.99) 6.50 (4.71–8.99)2 4.60 (3.35–6.31)2
Low birth weight NA 2.05 (1.74–2.41)2 2.6 (1.5–4.4)2 2.20 (1.72–2.79) 6.62 (4.50–9.32)2 5.46 (3.90–7.65)2
Admission to NICU NA 1.56 (1.24–1.98)2 2.8 (1.9–4.1) NA 0.87 (0.52–1.44)2 1.18 (0.75–1.86)2
Fetal death 3.6 (1.8–6.3) NA NA NA 7.75 (3.65–16.46)2 5.19 (2.04–13.22)2
Perinatal death 2.7 (1.6–4.2) 1.87 (1.34–2.62)2 NA NA NA NA
Neonatal death     3.63 (2.23–5.91) 6.16 (4.70–9.32)2 8.66 (3.59–20.86)2
  1. 1Pooled, under-attending and non-attending 2OR adjusted for confounding factors found in the study; 3age under 20 years; NA = not applicable; 4over 7 births; 5number of visits relative to gestational length