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Table 1 Occurrences of pregnancy risk factors and complications (%)in the study groups

From: Under-attending free antenatal care is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes

  Reference (6–18 visits) (n = 23137) % No visits (n = 270) % 1–5 visits (n = 207) %
Pregnancy risk factors    
Age < 18 years 0.63 1.85 ** 0.97
Age > 35 years 11.03 14.07 12.56
Unmarried 17.48 30.74 *** 33.33 ***
Unemployed 16.97 16.67 16.43
Education    
   High 24.74 18.51 * 16.43 **
   Average 45.71 34.07 *** 36.23 **
   Low 21.70 22.96 20.77
Primiparity 40.52 43.70 41.55
Multiparity 0.41 0.37 1.45 *
Prior miscarriage 9.78 16.67 17.88
Prior induced abortion 9.78 7.78 12.56
Prior fetal death 1.79 1.48 2.42
Overweight 19.04 22.17 18.93
History of infertility 6.30 5.93 4.35
Smoking 5.88 8.52 13.04 ***
Alcohol consumption 3.45 3.70 6.76 **
Chronic illness 5.13 4.44 5.80
Diabetes 2.25 1.85 1.93
Chronic hypertension 1.28 1.11 0.97
Pregnancy complications    
Prolonged gravidity 3.77 4.44 2.08
Low haemoglobin 1.53 0.74 2.90
Pre-eclampsia 2.76 3.72 3.86
Chorio-amnionitis 1.37 4.83 *** 9.66 ***
Placental abruption 0.70 4.44 *** 6.28 ***
Placenta previa 0.41 0.37 0.48
Meconium-stained AF 10.56 10.98 13.13
Abnormal FHR during delivery 16.76 19.02 15.20
  1. AF = amniotic fluid; FHR = fetal heart rate; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001