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Table 1 Trends in under-five mortality, population growth, access to clean water, and child vaccination

From: Progress towards the child mortality millennium development goal in urban sub-Saharan Africa: the dynamics of population growth, immunization, and access to clean water

   First Survey Yeara Last Survey Yeara Under-five mortality rateb Urban population growthc Access to safe drinking waterd Full vaccinatione
1 Benin 1996 2001 -2.3 5.6 2.8 2.2
2 Burkina Faso 1992/93 2003 -0.8 6.3 2.8 -0.5
3 Cameroon 1991 2004 -0.1 5.0 0.1 0.6
4 Chad 1996/97 2004 -0.8 4.1 8.1 0.3
5 Côte d'Ivoire 1994 1998/99 0.9 4.7 0.3 5.7
6 Eritrea 1995 2002 -5.6 3.6 1.7 1.6
7 Ghana 1993 2003 0.3 4.6 -0.5 0.6
8 Kenya 1993 2003 2.2 7.4 -2.0 -4.1
9 Madagascar 1992 2003/04 -5.6 4.7 -1.5 1.6
10 Malawi 1992 2004 -4.6 5.8 -0.8 -1.7
11 Mali 1995/96 2001 -0.6 5.2 3.3 -0.6
12 Mozambique 1997 2003 -0.8 6.7 -2.7 -0.8
13 Namibia 1992 2000 -6.7 4.9 0.2 1.9
14 Niger 1992 1998 -2.7 5.8 0.7 0.2
15 Nigeria 1990 2003 1.2 5.3 -4.9 -5.4
16 Rwanda 1992 2000 -1.2 7.8 1.1 -2.3
17 Senegal 1992/93 1997 -2.9 4.3 0.1 3.3
18 Tanzania 1992 2004 -3.2 7.2 -1.2 -0.2
19 Togo 1988 1998 -2.6 5.3 0.8 1.5
20 Uganda 1995 2000/01 -5.0 5.0 6.6 -5.1
21 Zambia 1992 2001/02 -0.8 2.2 -0.9 0.3
22 Zimbabwe 1994 1999 1.8 4.9 0.2 -5.0
  1. aFirst and last demographic and health surveys (DHS) carried out between the 1990s and the 2000s.
  2. bAnnual variation of urban under-five mortality rate. Source: DHS.
  3. cAnnual growth of urban population (1980–2000). Source: Population Division, United Nations.
  4. dAnnual variation of the percentage of urban households with access to safe drinking water. Source: DHS.
  5. eAnnual variation of the percentage of urban children aged 12–23 months who are fully immunized. Source: DHS.