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Table 1 Summary of research commissioned to evaluate the impact of the Scottish Smoking ban [14].

From: Covert observation in practice: lessons from the evaluation of the prohibition of smoking in public places in Scotland

Study Aim, Design & Data Collection
Changes in Child Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (CHETS) Aim: To determine change in childhood exposure to ETS, including exposure in the home.
Design: Repeat cross-sectional survey of probability sample of Scottish Primary 7 children (11 yrs).
Sample size: 2,500 children pre and 2,500 post ban
Data collection: Baseline Jan-Feb 06; follow-up Jan-Feb 07. Self-complete questionnaire on smoking status and self-reported exposure; saliva sample (for cotinine assay).
Health Education Population Study (HEPS) Aim: To determine change in adult exposure (non-smokers) to ETS in the home and public places and changes in tobacco consumption (smokers).
Design: Repeat cross-sectional in-home survey of probability sample of Scottish adults (16–74 yrs).
Sample size: 1,800 adults pre and 1,800 post ban
Data collection: Baseline Sept-Oct 05/Feb-Mar 06; follow-up Sept-Oct 06/Feb-Mar 07. Interviewer-administered questionnaire on smoking status, self-reported exposure and attitudes towards smoking and legislation; saliva sample (for cotinine assay).
STudy Of Public place Intervention on Tobacco exposure (STOPIT) Aim: To determine change in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome
Design: Multi-centre prospective study of hospital admissions for acute coronary syndrome. Entry criteria: chest pain + raised troponin on admission/within 12 hours.
Sample size: ACS cases from 9 centre, representing half Scottish ACS admissions (circa 2,700 per annum)
Data collection: Continuous May 05-Apr 07. Research nurse-administered questionnaire on smoking status and self-reported exposure; admission blood sample (for cotinine assay).
Bar-workers' Health and Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure (BHETSE) * Aim: To determine change in respiratory health of bar workers
Design: Prospective cohort study of bar workers from five urban and rural areas in Scotland.
Sample size: 371 bar workers recruited at baseline and followed up; direct measurement of air quality in 41 bars.
Data collection: Baseline Jan-Feb 06; follow-up Jun-Jul 06 and Jan-Feb 07. Interviewer-administered questionnaire on smoking status, self-reported exposure and attitudes towards smoking and legislation; lung function (FEV1, FVC); saliva sample (for cotinine assay). Air sampling for PM2.5 in selected premises.
Qualitative Bar Study * Aim: To determine changes in attitudes and behaviour in relation to smoking, smoking restrictions and the cultural contexts in which smoking and drinking take place.
Design: Qualitative pre- and post- study of bars and their customers in three communities.
Data collection: In-depth and paired interviews, direct observation.
Qualitative Community Study * Aim: To determine impact of legislation on attitudes, behaviours and experiences of individuals, families and communities.
Design: Qualitative pre- and post- study of four contrasting communities. Nested case study approach.
Data collection: Baseline Sept 05-Mar 06, follow-up Apr-Dec 06. In-depth interviews, focus groups, direct observation of enclosed and outdoor spaces.
International Tobacco Control (ITC) Ireland/UK Scotland Extension Aim: To determine changes in smokers and non-smokers attitudinal and behavioural response to smoke-free laws
Design: Quasi-experimental prospective cohort telephone survey of probability samples of smoking and non-smoking adults in Scotland, the rest of the UK and Ireland
Sample size: 500 smokers and 300 non-smokers at baseline.
Data collection: Baseline: Feb-Mar 06; Follow-up Feb-Mar 07. Telephone survey on smoking status; quit attempts in smokers; attitudes towards and compliance with legislation; social norms about smoking, smoking behaviour in public and private venues
  1. * Study includes covert observational research