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Table 4 Educational level of mothers and fathers participating in KIDSCREEN study compared with EUROSTAT reference population.

From: Methods and representativeness of a European survey in children and adolescents: the KIDSCREEN study

  Mothers     Fathers    
Level of education within countries a,b   Sample (%) Reference populationc(%) Population Sample (%) Reference populationc(%) Population
     Fraction ‰ PFR (95% CI)d    Fraction ‰ PFR (95% CI)d
Phone & mail          
AT. Austria Low 11.2e 24.3e 1.15 0.37 (0.31–0.43) 7.82e 13.8e 1.55 0.49 (0.40–0.60)
  Medium 74.5 59.1 3.16 1f 75.5 65.7 3.15 1e
  High 14.2 16.6 2.15 0.86 (0.74–0.99) 16.7 20.5 2.23 0.81 (0.71–0.93)
  Total n = 1,489 N = 595,200 2.50   n = 1432 N = 523000 2.74  
CH. Switzerland Low 13.6e 15.7e 3.10 0.93 (0.80–1.08) 8.18e 11.5e 2.90 0.98 (0.81–1.19)
  Medium 69.6 74.7 3.33 1f 48.7 67.3 2.96 1f
  High 16.8 9.6 6.23 1.74 (1.53–1.98) 43.2 21.2 8.36 2.04 (1.86–2.24)
  Total n = 1,595 N = 446,000 3.58   n = 1492 N = 364000 4.10  
DE. Germany Low 23.3 20.9 0.33 1.14 (1.01–1.27) 29.4e 13.6e 0.67 2.79 (2.49–3.13)
  Medium 59.9 60.9 0.29 1f 45.2 58.3 0.24 1f
  High 16.8 18.2 0.27 0.92 (0.82–1.05) 25.4 28.1 0.28 0.90 (0.81–1.01)
  Total n = 1,700 N = 5,788,300 0.29   n = 1614 N = 5217200 0.31  
ES. Spain Low 56.6e 63.9e 0.23 0.87 (0.73–1.05) 55.4e 60.7e 0.24 0.90 (0.74–1.08)
  Medium 18.4 18.1 0.27 1f 18 17.7 0.27 1f
  High 25.0 18.0 0.37 1.39 (1.19–1.61) 26.7 21.7 0.32 1.23 (1.06–1.43)
  Total n = 844 N = 3,197,800 0.26   n = 784 N = 2986000 0.26  
FR. France Low 32.0e 37.6e 0.18 1.63 (1.37–1.93) 38.2e 34e 0.25 2.66 (2.23–3.17)
  Medium 21.5 41.2 0.11 1f 19.2 45.5 0.10 1f
  High 46.5 21.2 0.46 2.20 (1.97–2.45) 42.6 20.5 0.47 2.08 (1.85–2.33)
  Total n = 1,019 N = 4,883,300 0.21   n = 969 N = 4269900 0.23  
NL. Netherlands Low 20.0e 35.5e 0.97 0.44 (0.39–0.49) 25.1e 29.9e 1.59 0.81 (0.72–0.91)
  Medium 57.9 44.9 2.22 1f 43.5 41.7 1.97 1f
  High 22.0 19.7 1.93 1.12 (1.00–1.25) 31.4 28.5 2.08 1.10 (1.00–1.21)
  Total n = 1,787 N = 1,037,200 1.72   n = 1747 N = 927300 1.88  
Schools          
EL.Greece Low 36.9e 59.5e 0.77 0.54 (0.46–0.62) 38.7e 53.3e 1.62 0.72 (0.61–0.83)
  Medium 36.5 31.5 1.44 1f 29.5 29.1 2.26 1f
  High 26.7 9.0 3.71 2.97 (2.60–3.40) 31.8 17.6 4.03 1.81 (1.59–2.05)
  Total n = 1,001 N = 803,000 1.25   n = 974 N = 437000 2.23  
HU. Hungary Low 29.7e 27.3e 2.40 1.43 (1.28–1.59) 44e 18.3e 5.59 5.20 (4.66–5.80)
  Medium 44.0 57.9 1.68 1f 31.6 68.2 1.08 1f
  High 26.3 14.8 3.94 1.78 (1.61–1.96) 24.4 13.5 4.18 1.80 (1.62–2.00)
  Total n = 1,901 N = 858,600 2.21   n = 1734 N = 74700 2.32  
other          
UK. United Kingdom Low 13.6e 20.4e 0.20 0.98 (0.82–1.17) 17.9e 14.6e 0.41 2.44 (2.05–2.91)
  Medium 38.4 56.5 0.20 1f 28.5 56.8 0.17 1f
  High 47.9 23.2 0.61 2.07 (1.87–2.28) 53.6 28.6 0.62 1.88 (1.70–2.07)
  Total n = 1,225 N = 4,163,800 0.29   n = 1119 N = 3362100 0.33  
PL. Poland Low 32.2e 50.1e 1.75 0.50 (0.45–0.55) 47.6e 61.6e 2.42 0.56 (0.50–0.63)
  Medium 49.1 38.0 3.51 1f 35.8 25.9 4.34 1f
  High 18.8 11.9 4.30 1.58 (1.40–1.78) 16.6 12.5 4.17 1.33 (1.16–1.52)
  Total n = 1,673 N = 615,000 2.72   n = 1456 N = 464000 3.14  
CZ. Czech Republic Low 3.7e 11.0e 0.58 0.36 (0.27–0.46) 2.67e 6.12e 0.79 0.47 (0.35–0.65)
  Medium 75.1 79.1 1.63 1f 73.1 79.4 1.66 1f
  High 21.2 10.0 3.65 2.13 (1.89–2.40) 24.3 14.4 3.04 1.68 (1.50–1.88)
  Total n = 1,558 N = 908,000 1.72   n = 1496 N = 826500 1.81  
  1. a Level of education according to ISCED categories; b Countries ordered by sampling method and alphabetically; data not available for IE; cEurostat data for women and men with at least one child from 8–18 years old in the household; d PFR:population fraction ratio (95% confidence interval); e Statistically significant difference (p < 0.01); f Reference category.