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Table 4 Regression coefficients (b) for adult occupational level predicting six-year change in physical, affective, and cognitive functioning in adulthood. adjusted for age, sex, and baseline level of functioning (Model 1), additionally adjusted for childhood socioeconomic conditions and developmental factors in early life (Model 2), and additionally adjusted for intellectual abilities (Model 3) (N = 1211)a

From: To what extent does IQ 'explain' socio-economic variations in function?

  Model 1   Model 2    Model 3   
  B 95% CI B 95% CI   B 95% CI  
Physical functioning         
   High occupational level 0.00 (reference) 0.00 (reference)   0.00 (reference)  
   Intermediate level 0.44 (-1.29, 2.17) 0.41 (-1.33, 2.15) [07] -0.12 (-1.88, 1.63) [>100]
   Low occupational level 2.43 (0.70, 4.15) 2.44 (0.68, 4.20) [00] 1.02 (-0.89, 2.94) [58]
Continuous measures b 0.07 (0.02, 0.12) 0.07 (0.02, 0.12) [00] 0.03 (-0.03, 0.08) [57]
Affective functioning         
   High occupational level 0.00 (reference) 0.00 (reference)   0.00 (reference)  
   Intermediate level 0.73 (-1.32, 2.78) 0.59 (-1.47, 2.65) [19] 0.26 (-1.83, 2.36) [56]
   Low occupational level 2.81 (0.77, 4.86) 2.49 (0.40, 4.58) [11] 1.73 (-0.56, 4.01) [31]
Continuous measures 0.08 (0.02, 0.13) 0.07 (0.01, 0.12) [13] 0.04 (-0.02, 0.11) [50]
Cognitive functioning         
   High occupational level 0.00 (reference) 0.00 (reference)   0.00 (reference)  
   Intermediate level 1.37 (-1.13, 3.86) 1.31 (-1.20, 3.81) [04] 0.70 (-1.85, 3.24) [47]
   Low occupational level 3.96 (1.47, 6.44) 3.84 (1.30, 6.38) [03] 2.44 (-0.33, 5.22) [37]
Continuous measures 0.12 (0.05, 0.19) 0.12 (0.05, 0.19) [00] 0.08 (0.00, 0.16) [33]
  1. a Between brackets is the percentage decline of the B-coefficient compared with the previous model. It indicates the extent to which newly introduced variables 'explain' the association of adult occupational level with physical, affective, and cognitive functioning. bAnalyses done using continuous measures of both intellectual abilities and occupational level (post-recode range: -87 (high) to -16 (low)).