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Table 3 Regression coefficients (b) for socioeconomic and developmental conditions during childhood and intellectual abilities predicting six-year change in physical, affective, and cognitive functioning in adulthood, adjusted for age, sex, and baseline level of functioning (N = 1211)a

From: To what extent does IQ 'explain' socio-economic variations in function?

   Six-year change in:
   Physical functioning Affective functioning Cognitive functioning
   B 95% CI B 95% CI B 95% CI
Early socioeconomic conditions        
   Deprivation No 0 (reference) 0 (reference) 0 (reference)
  Yes 3.94 (1.26, 6.61) 1.66 (-1.44, 4.77) -0.09 (-3.89, 3.71)
   Occupational level of father High 0 (reference) 0 (reference) 0 (reference)
  Intermediate -0.15 (-1.96, 1.65) 0.85 (-1.24, 2.95) 2.51 (0.02, 5.01)
  Low -0.08 (-1.78, 1.61) 1.54 (-0.41, 3.50) 3.72 (1.40, 6.05)
   Educational level of father High 0 (reference) 0 (reference) 0 (reference)
  Intermediate -0.42 (-2.48, 1.65) 3.29 (0.75, 5.82) 2.57 (-0.52, 5.67)
  Low 0.27 (-1.51, 2.04) 2.86 (0.70, 5.02) 2.96 (0.32, 5.60)
   Educational level of mother High 0 (reference) 0 (reference) 0 (reference)
  Intermediate 0.44 (-1.94, 2.82) -0.22 (-3.09, 2.65) 1.15 (-2.36, 4.65)
  Low -0.36 (-2.46, 1.75) 0.91 (-1.63, 3.44) 0.61 (-2.47, 3.70)
Early developmental factors        
   Assisted birth No 0 (reference) 0 (reference) 0 (reference)
  Yes 0.68 (-2.75, 4.11) -1.77 (-5.54, 2.00) 0.03 (-4.71, 4.76)
   Low birth weight No 0 (reference) 0 (reference) 0 (reference)
  Yes 1.24 (-2.03, 4.51) -0.47 (-4.47, 3.53) -1.04 (-5.86, 3.77)
   Nuchal cord No 0 (reference) 0 (reference) 0 (reference)
  Yes -0.09 (-4.46, 4.27) 1.57 (-3.83, 6.98) 0.53 (-0.72, 1.78)
   Delayed milestones No 0 (reference) 0 (reference) 0 (reference)
  Yes 4.90 (1.65, 8.14) 0.07 (-3.94, 4.07) 0.68 (-4.35, 5.71)
   Severe disease in childhood No 0 (reference) 0 (reference) 0 (reference)
  Yes 0.16 (-2.47, 2.79) 1.41 (-1.63, 4.45) 1.27 (-2.39, 4.94)
Intellectual abilities High 0 (reference) 0 (reference) 0 (reference)
  Intermediate 1.83 ((0.14, 3.52) 0.44 (-1.51, 2.38) -0.33 (-2.68, 2.02)
  Low 2.92 (1.16, 4.69) 2.37 (0.33, 4.41) 4.60 (2.14, 7.06)
  1. a Reference category is 'high' for occupational level of the father, educational level of the parents, and intellectual abilities. Reference category is 'no' for all other variables.