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Table 2 Mean physical, affective, and cognitive functioning at baseline and six-year follow-up phase, according to adult occupational level, adjusted for age and sex (analysis of variance); mean six-year functional change score is additionally adjusted for baseline functioning (analysis of variance) (N = 1211)a

From: To what extent does IQ 'explain' socio-economic variations in function?

  Mean functioning:
  At baseline At follow-up Six-year change
Physical functioning    
   High occupational level 2.97 4.35 1.87
   Intermediate level 2.05 4.24 2.31
   Low occupational level 2.30 6.76 * 4.29 *
Affective functioning    
   High occupational level 6.83 15.95 9.12
   Intermediate level 6.75 16.56 9.85
   Low occupational level 6.93 18.79 * 11.94 *
Cognitive functioning    
   High occupational level 17.39 16.40 -0.91
   Intermediate level 15.73 16.83 0.46
   Low occupational level 18.35 20.53 * 3.05 *
  1. * p < .05.
  2. a Measures for functioning range from 0 (good) to 100 (poor); change score indicates follow-up minus baseline score. Positive values for the change score indicate longitudinal decline; negative values indicate improvement.