Skip to main content

Table 5 Adjusted prevalence ratios of low back pain for each factor

From: Prevalence and risk factors for low back pain among professional cooks working in school lunch services

   PR adj1) 95% CI
Gender Female 1.32 1.03–1.68
Smoking Ex-smokers 1.35 1.01–1.79
  Current smokers 1.57 1.24–1.98
The number of cooked lunches per person 150–199 meals 1.28 1.05–1.56
No breaks in morning session   1.33 1.13–1.56
Kitchen environment score2)   1.09 1.03–1.15
The height of cooking equipment score3)   1.13 1.08–1.19
Job satisfaction Dissatisfied 1.22 1.03–1.45
Stress at work Stressful 1.68 1.42–1.99
Financial constraints Stressful 1.23 1.03–1.47
Health-related stress Stressful 1.31 1.08–1.59
Worries about the future Stressful 1.24 1.01–1.52
  1. 1) Prevalence ratios were adjusted for all items. Prevalence ratios referred to the following groups: male, age <39 years, not smoking, doing physical activity, sleeping for less than 7 hours, having meals regularly, 1–149 meals per a cook, small-scale kitchen, having breaks in the morning session, and all psychological factors unstressful.
  2. 2) Kitchen conditions score is the sum total of the points such as no rest room, wet floor, poor state of drainage, presence of slippery places, bumps, and obstacles on the floor, and noisy surroundings (1 point each).
  3. 3) The height of cooking equipment score is the sum total of the points such as the inappropriate height of counter-tables, kitchen sinks, cauldrons, vegetable cutters and peelers, feeding and finishing parts of tableware washing machines, and hot wind tableware dryers (1 point each).