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Table 5 Multivariable linear regression models for change in BMI for women and men

From: Changes in body mass index in Canadians over a five-year period: Results of a prospective, population-based study

Variable Women Parameter Estimates and 95% Confidence Intervals Men Parameter Estimates and 95% Confidence Intervals
Intercept 3.6 (2.8, 4.3) 1.2 (0.5, 2.0)
Region of Canada (Reference = Central)   
   East -0.82 (-1.09, -0.55) -0.66 (-0.99, -0.32)
   Quebec -0.50 (-0.78, -0.22) -0.54 (-0.88, -0.20)
   Ontario -0.39 (-0.61, -0.16) -0.35 (-0.62, -0.08)
   West -0.24 (-0.47, -0.00) -0.45 (-0.73, -0.16)
Age at baseline (Reference = 75+)   
   25–34 1.97 (0.23, 3.71) 1.55 (1.10, 2.00)
   35–44 2.13 (1.59, 2.68) 1.19 (0.76, 1.63)
   45–54 1.64 (1.34, 1.94) 0.75 (0.40, 1.10)
   55–64 1.11 (0.88, 1.35) 0.76 (0.43, 1.09)
   65–74 0.69 (0.46, 0.92) 0.41 (0.09, 0.73)
Annual Household Income (Reference = < $20,000)   
   $21,000–$40,000 0.13 (-0.07, 0.33) 0.28 (-0.04, 0.60)
   $41,000–$60,000 0.08 (-0.16, 0.32) 0.44 (0.10, 0.78)
   $61,000–$80,000 0.44 (0.13, 0.74) 0.36 (-0.01, 0.74)
   > $80,000 0.18 (-0.12, 0.48) 0.65 (0.27, 1.02)
Education (Reference = University degree(s))   
   < High school diploma 0.31 (0.06, 0.55) 0.12 (-0.14, 0.39)
   High school or Trade school diploma 0.25 (0.02, 0.48) 0.32 (0.07, 0.56)
   Some University, or University certificate/diploma 0.36 (0.08, 0.64) 0.10 (-0.20, 0.40)
Average level of pain, past week (reference = no pain)   
   Mild to moderate, prevents no activities 0.19 (0.01, 0.37) 0.11 (-0.11, 0.33)
   Moderate, prevents a few activities 0.08 (-0.12, 0.28) -0.12 (-0.40, 0.16)
   Moderate to severe, prevents some activities 0.34 (0.06, 0.63) 0.02 (-0.39, 0.43)
   Severe pain that prevents most activities 0.00 (-0.66, 0.67) 0.04 (-0.76, 0.85)
Smoking status (reference = quit smoking)   
   Current smoker -0.49 (-0.74, -0.24) -0.18 (-0.46, 0.09)
   Never smoked -0.12 (-0.27; 0.04) -0.01 (-0.21, 0.19)
Number of live births -0.02 (-0.06, 0.02) n/a
Alcohol/week (Reference = None)   
   1 to 6 (WOMEN) or 1 to 13 (MEN) 0.06 (-0.10, 0.21) -0.09 (-0.30, 0.13)
   7 or more (WOMEN) or 14 or more (MEN) -0.16 (-0.39, 0.07) -0.25 (-0.55, 0.05)
Menopausal status (reference = menopaused at baseline)   
   Not menopaused -0.16 (-0.50, 0.17) n/a
   Menopaused in the past 5 years -0.15 (-0.49, 0.20)  
Change, participation in regular activity (reference = did not, do now)   
   Did not, and do not now (no, no) 0.28 (0.05, 0.52) 0.42 (0.12, 0.71)
   Did, but do not anymore (yes, no) 0.28 (0.04, 0.53) 0.27 (-0.04, 0.58)
   Did and still do (yes, yes) 0.24 (0.01, 0.47) 0.17 (-0.11, 0.45)
Change, number of sedentary hours (reference = high to low)   
   Low to high 0.32 (0.09, 0.56) 0.52 (0.22, 0.83)
   High at baseline, stayed high 0.13 (-0.08, 0.33) 0.23 (-0.03, 0.49)
   Low at baseline, stayed low 0.17 (-0.04, 0.38) 0.38 (0.13, 0.64)
Change in how happy they usually feel (reference = improved)   
   Decline in how happy they usually feel -0.37 (-0.65, -0.10) -0.33 (-0.66, 0.01)
   Feel about the same -0.23 (-0.44, -0.02) -0.09 (-0.35, 0.17)
Perception of general health (reference = poor, and stayed that way)   
   High, dropped to poor 0.38 (0.15, 0.60) 0.13 (-0.17, 0.43)
   Poor, went to high 0.02 (-0.22, 0.27) 0.29 (0.04, 0.53)
   Perception of health stayed high 0.12 (-0.06, 0.31) 0.11 (-0.12, 0.33)
  1. The first eight variables are based on baseline data; the remaining 5 represent change between baseline and the 5-year follow-up.
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