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Table 1 Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in relation to intake of vitamin and mineral supplements by the mother during pregnancy, and by the child before the reference date. Unmatched analyses

From: Vitamin and mineral supplements in pregnancy and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a case-control study

Supplement & details of use Categories No. of cases No. of controls Odds ratio (CI)
     Adjusted for age in years and sex only Adjusted for age, sex, and other variables *
Mother's use during the pregnancy      
Folic acid (any, No 82 268   
with or without iron) Yes 8 27 0.9 (0.4–2.2) 1.1 (0.5–2.7)
Iron (any, No 45 151   
with or without folic acid) Yes 44 142 1.1 (0.7–1.8) 1.2 (0.7–2.1)
Iron without folic acid No 51 177   
  Yes 38 116 1.2 (0.7–2.1) 1.3 (0.8–2.3)
Multivitamins No 87 281   
  Yes 3 14 0.7 (0.2–2.5) 0.8 (0.2–3.1)
Other vitamin or No 78 263   
mineral supplements Yes 13 32 1.3 (0.6–2.6) 1.5 (0.7–3.1)
Child's use before the reference date     
Folic acid (any, No 90 288   
with or without iron) Yes 6 15 1.2 (0.4–3.2) 1.0 (0.4–2.8)
Iron (any, No 89 286   
with or without folic acid) Yes 7 17 1.2 (0.5–3.1) 1.1 (0.4–2.8)
Iron without folic acid No 95 301   
  Yes 1 2 1.3 (0.1–15.5) 1.6 (0.1–19.3)
Multivitamins No 90 288   
  Yes 6 15 1.2 (0.4–3.2) 1.0 (0.4–2.8)
Other vitamin or No 82 272   
mineral supplements Yes 14 31 1.5 (0.7–3.0) 1.6 (0.8–3.4)
  1. * Adjusted for age, sex, marital status, and mother's education.
  2. † Restricted to child's use of a supplement for 5 or more days, either in a row or separate days. Child's usage in the six months prior to the diagnosis or reference date was not counted.