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Table 2 Self-reported sleep duration, difficulty initiating sleeping, difficulty maintaining sleeping and risk of type 2 diabetes, 1999–2004, HIPOP-OHP, Japan

From: Relation between sleep quality and quantity, quality of life, and risk of developing diabetes in healthy workers in Japan: the High-risk and Population Strategy for Occupational Health Promotion (HIPOP-OHP) Study

Self-reported sleep duration Age-adjusted Model* Model 1 † Model 2 ‡
< 6 hours 1.19 (0.81–1.76) 1.15 (0.76–1.74) 1.15 (0.76–1.74)
6–7 hours 1.00 1.00 1.00
7–8 hours 1.24 (0.92–1.69) 1.15 (0.84–1.59) 1.15 (0.84–1.59)
> 8 hours 1.16 (0.72–1.87) 1.02 (0.62–1.70) 1.03 (0.62–1.70)
P for trend 0.549 0.933 0.723
Self-reported difficulty initiating sleeping Age-adjusted Model* Model 1 § Model 2 ¶
None 1.00 1.00 1.00
Sometimes 1.33 (1.00–1.76) 1.39 (1.04–1.88) 1.42 (1.05–1.91)
Often 1.65 (1.07–2.54) 1.63 (1.04–2.59) 1.61 (1.00–2.58)
P for trend 0.007 0.011 0.005
Self-reported difficulty maintaining sleeping Age-adjusted Model* Model 1 § Model 2 ¶
None 1.00 1.00 1.00
Sometimes 1.31 (0.99–1.73) 1.31 (0.97–1.77) 1.31 (0.97–1.76)
Often 1.38 (0.91–2.11) 1.34 (0.86–2.01) 1.37 (0.87–2.16)
P for trend 0.043 0.074 0.063
  1. * Adjusted for age at baseline (5 year increments)
  2. † Adjusted for age, gender, history of smoking, history of hypertension, history of high cholesterol, potential history of diabetes, exercise (MET-h/week) quartiles, and assigned intervention (health promotion)
  3. ‡ Adjusted for all variables in model 1 and BMI (kg/m2, quartiles)
  4. § Adjusted for age, gender, BMI (kg/m2, quartiles), history of smoking, history of hypertension, history of high cholesterol, potential history of diabetes, exercise (MET-h/week) quartiles, and assigned intervention (health promotion)
  5. ¶ Adjusted for all variables in model 1 and sleep duration categories