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Table 2 Relationship between urban-rural character of area and the likelihood of (a) limiting illness or (b) poor general health, in people aged 25–74 years. Data represents odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) from logistic regression models.

From: Urban and rural variations in morbidity and mortality in Northern Ireland

(a) Odds ratio of reporting limiting long-term illness *
  Unadjusted Adjusted for age & sex Fully Adjusted$
City 1.00 1.00 1.00
Intermediate 0.93 (0.92, 0.94) 0.95 (0.94, 0.96) 0.93 (0.92, 0.94)
Rural 0.81 (0.79, 0.83) 0.78 (0.77, 0.79) 0.81 (0.80, 0.82)
(b) Odds ratio of reporting that general health in the last year was 'fair' or 'not good' *
  Unadjusted Adjusted for age & sex Fully Adjusted $
City 1.00 1.00 1.00
Intermediate 0.93 (0.92, 0.94) 0.96 (0.95, 0.97) 0.94 (0.93, 0.95)
Rural 0.80 (0.79, 0.81) 0.78 (0.77, 0.79) 0.81 (0.80, 0.82)
  1. Source: Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study (Mortality Study)
  2. $ = fully adjusted for age, sex, marital status, denomination and social class (NS-SEC)
  3. * = Statistical significance: All significant at the P < 0.001 level
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