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Table 1 International Comparison of Tobacco Smoking Surveys Conducted among Physicians between 1974 and 2004

From: An international review of tobacco smoking in the medical profession: 1974–2004

Publication Details Smoking Ratec Study Details  
Authors a Year b Country All Male Female Methodology Sample Size Response Rate d Additional Findings
Smith et al [28] 2004 China 16% 32% 0% Hand Delivered 286 79% Physicians younger than 25 had the lowest smoking rate
Soto Mas et al [29] 2003 United States e 7% - - Postal Survey 45 56% No physicians reported being current cigarette smokers
Kenna & Wood [30] 2002 United States 4% - - Postal Survey 104 63% Fewer physicians smoked when compared to dentists
Pärna et al [31,32] 2002 Estonia - 25% 11% Postal Survey 2668 68% Twice as many males as females were ex-smokers
Hodgetts et al [33] 2002 Bosnia & Herzegovina 40% - - Hand Delivered 112 73% Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses
Gunes et al [34] 2002 Turkey 38% - - Hand Delivered 257 85% Around one-fifth of smokers were only occasional smokers
Nollen et al [35] 2002 Nigeria 3% - - Hand Delivered 373 60% Smoking rates in two different hospitals were the same
Misra & Vadaparampil [36] 2002 United States f 3% - - Postal Survey 254 37% The smoking status of a further 6% of physicians was not defined
Barengo et al [37] 2001 Finland - 5% 3% Postal Survey 3057 69% Occasional smoking was more common among male physicians
Kannegaard et al [38] 2001 Denmark 15% - - Postal Survey 729 75% The physicians' smoking rate fell 4% between 1999 and 2001
Ahmadi et al [39] 2001* Iran 9% - - Hand Delivered 111 n/sg Residents had a higher smoking rate than attending physicians
Pizzo et al [40] 2000 Italy 28% 32% 20% Telephone Survey 526 72% Physician smoking rates differed by geographical region
Ohida et al [41] 2000 Japan - 27% 7% Postal Survey 3771 84% Male physicians aged 40–49 had the highest smoking rate
An et al [42] 2000 United States 2% - - Postal Survey 750 61% A further 17% of physicians had ever smoked in the past
John & Hanke [43] 1999 Germany 18% - - Census Data 1144 79% Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses
La Vecchia et al [44] 1999 Italy 24% 25% 23% Interview 501 n/s Physicians aged 41–50 had the highest smoking rate
Power et al [45] 1999 Ireland 16% - - Telephone Survey 171 85% Most physicians understood the dangers of smoking
Williang et al [46] 1999 Denmark 25% - - Postal Survey 445 91% Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses
McEwan & West [47] 1999 United Kingdom 4% - - Postal and Telephone 303 75% Most physicians felt they should advise patients to quit
Nardini et al [48] 1998* Italy 39% - - Hand Delivered 959 57% Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses
Josseran et al [49] 1998 France 32% 34% 25% Telephone Survey 2073 67% Physicians older than 40 had the highest smoking rate
Hepburn et al [50] 1997 United States 11% - - Postal Survey 150 65% More than half of the smokers used smokeless tobacco
Kawahara et al [51] 1997 Japan 26% 28% 5% Postal Survey 709 91% Physicians aged 40–49 years had the highest smoking rate
Samuels [52] 1996 Israel 16% 16% 15% Interview 260 87% The highest smoking rate was seen among radiologists
Zanetti et al [53] 1996 Italy 31% 29% 34% Hand Delivered 2453 68% Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses
Hay [54] 1996 New Zealand 5% 5% 5% Census Data 7335 97%h Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses
Li et al [55] 1996 China 45% 61% 12% Hand Delivered 493 82% Smoking rates have increased dramatically in recent years
Young & Ward [56] 1996 Australia 3% 4% 2% Postal Survey 855 67% Older physicians were more likely to be current smokers
Roche et al [57] 1996* Australia 4% - - Postal Survey 908 55% A further 8% said they had previously smoked tobacco
Roche et al [58] 1995* Australia 6% 6% 5% Postal Survey 1365 55% Trainee psychiatrists were more likely to be smokers
Barengo et al [59] 1995 Finland - 7% 3% Postal Survey 1221 76% Male physicians older than 45 had the highest smoking rate
Nardini et al [60] 1995 Italy 25% - - Conference Survey 605 62% Physicians aged 40–50 years had the highest smoking rate
Hill & Braithwaite [61] 1994 United States i 4% - - Postal Survey 121 32% Fewer physicians smoked when compared to dentists
Kawane & Soejima [62] 1994 Japan 29% - - Hand Delivered 163 60% Younger physicians had the highest smoking rates
Josseran et al [63] 1994 France 34% 36% 25% Telephone Survey 1013 65% Male physicians were also heavier smokers than female physicians
Kawakami et al [64] 1994 Japan 21% 24% 7% Postal Survey 323 71% Only 60% of smokers intended to reduce or quit their habit in future
Grossman et al [65] 1994 Costa Rica 19% - - Hand Delivered 217 76% 88% of smokers intended to reduce or quit their habit in future
Frank et al [66–68] 1994 United States - - 4% Postal Survey 4501 59% Fewer family physicians smoked than physicians, generally
Tapia-Conyer et al [69] 1993 Mexico 27% 30% 21% Postal Survey 3488 98% Physicians aged 33–43 years had the highest smoking rate
Polyzos et al [70] 1992 Greece 49% - - Hand Delivered 148 n/s Surgeons had a higher smoking rate than internists
Heloma et al [71] 1992 Finland 10% - - Postal Survey 725 72% More physicians smoked when compared to nurses
De Koninck et al [72] 1992 Canada - 13% 7% Postal Survey 1540 51% Over half of all male physicians had previously smoked
Bener et al [73] 1992 Arab Emirates 36% 44% 8% Postal Survey 275 92% Almost half the smokers were aged over 45 years
Tessier et al [74] 1991 France 21% 22% 14% Postal Survey 4318 37% Over half had made at least one attempt to quit smoking
Hussain et al [75] 1991 United Kingdom 5% - - Postal Survey 1069 82% Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses
Yaacob & Abdullah [76] 1991 Malaysia 18% 25% 0% Postal and Hand Delivered 120 100% Around half the smokers had begun before medical school
Doll et al [77] 1990 United Kingdom - 18% - Postal Survey 10807 94% A large proportion of smokers only smoked pipes and cigars
Kaetsu et al [78] 1990 Japan 32% 33% 5% Postal Survey 3565 63% Male physicians younger than 40 had the highest smoking rate
Jormanainen et al [79] 1990 Finland - 10% 6% Postal Survey 1231 76% General practitioners had a higher smoking rate than specialists
Brink et al [80] 1990 United States 2% - - Postal Survey 132 77% Physicians smoked at similar rates when compared to dentists
Bener et al [73] 1990 Kuwait 38% 45% 16% Postal Survey 252 84% Over half the smokers were aged 35 to 44 years
Hensrud & Sprafka [81] 1990 United States 9% 10% 2% Postal Survey 393 83% Physicians aged 60–69 years had the highest smoking rate
Waalkens et al [82] 1989 The Netherlands 32% 37% 14% Postal Survey 362 63% More consultants smoked than house officers
Kawane [83–85] 1989 Japan 25% 26% 6% Postal Survey 3640 59% Chest physicians smoked at lower rates than physicians, generally
Dekker et al [86] 1989 Netherlands 38% 41% 24% Postal Survey 263 82% More general practitioners smoked than consultants
Hughes et al [87] 1989 United States 6% - - Postal Survey 5426 59% Older physicians were more likely to have ever smoked
Scott et al [88] 1988 United States 5% 5% 4% Postal Survey 2341 86% Physicians aged 55–64 years had the highest smoking rate
Fowler et al [89] 1988 United Kingdom 4% - - Postal Survey 2176 75% A further 11% of male physicians smoked pipes or cigars
Saeed [90] 1987 Saudi Arabia 34% - - Hand Delivered 716 81% Males smoked more sticks per day than female physicians
Nutbeam & Catford [91] 1987 Wales 14% 17% 0% Postal Survey 310 60% Almost one-quarter of female physicians were ex-smokers
Hughes et al [92] 1987 United States 4% - - Postal Survey 1754 60% Psychiatry residents had the highest smoking rate
Davies & Rajan [93] 1987 United Kingdom 3% - - Postal Survey 94 72% Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses
Cheng & Lam [94] 1987 Hong Kong 5% 7% 0% Postal Survey 133 88% Only 8% of female physicians had ever smoked tobacco
Stillman et al [95] 1987 United States 6% - - Postal Survey 6050 69% A no-smoking hospital policy helped reduce the smoking rate
Sarkar et al [96] 1987 India 32% 48% 3% Interview 218 99% Physicians aged 20–29 had the highest smoking rate
Franceschi et al [97] 1985 Italy 31% - - Postal and Telephone 709 86% Over half of the smokers reported no attempt to quit smoking
Linn et al [98] 1984 United States 4% - - Postal and Telephone 211 67% A further 2% smoked either weekly or monthly
Joossens et al [99] 1983 Belgium 32% 34% 16% Postal Survey 2157 67% Around half of the smokers were evaluated as being dissonant
Kaetsu et al [100] 1983 Japan 43% 45% 9% Postal Survey 4232 84% Male physicians younger than 40 had the highest smoking rate
Sachs [101,102] 1983 United States 12% - - Conference Survey 594 27% Smoking was higher among non-practicing specialists
Seiler [103] 1983* Scotland 19% - - Postal Survey 607 81% Almost half of smoking doctors had spouses who also smoked
Senior [104] 1982* Canada 19% - - Hand Delivered 88 52% Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses
Fortmann et al [105] 1982 United States 8% - - Postal Survey 221 62% Physicians older than 46 years had the highest smoking rate
Hay [106] 1981 New Zealand 15% 15% 13% Census Data 4937 97%h Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses
Ballal [107] 1980 Sudan - 46% 1% Postal and Hand Delivered 753 72% Some respiratory symptoms were more common among smokers
Wyshak et al [108] 1979 United States 14% - - Postal Survey 289 70% Fewer physicians smoked when compared to lawyers
Wells et al [109] 1978 United States - 15% - Hand Delivered 151 76% Surgeons/obstetricians had the highest smoking rates
Dodds et al [110] 1977 Australia 21% 22% 16% Postal and Telephone 275 80% Physicians aged 50–59 years had the highest smoking rate
Hay [111] 1976 New Zealand - 20% 17% Census Data 4089 97%h Obstetricians had the highest smoking rates of all
Aarø et al [112] 1974 Norway - 35% 22% Postal Survey 1138 95% Male physicians aged 55–64 had the highest smoking rate
Rankin et al [113] 1974 Australia 14% 14% 17% Postal Survey 1276 69% Physicians aged 50–59 years had the highest smoking rate
  1. a Including the reference number as listed in this manuscript, b Year in which the study was undertaken – not the year of publication (Studies that continued over more than one year list the latest year. In cases where the study year was not listed, manuscripts are arranged by publication year and marked with an asterisk*), c Smoking rates rounded to the nearest whole number, d Response rates rounded to the nearest whole number (as some studies investigated multiple occupational groups, response rates may be indicative of the entire group rather than just physicians), e Subjects were restricted to Hispanic physicians living in the United States, f Subjects were restricted to Asian-Indian physicians living in the United States, g The survey used a convenience sample with an unspecified response rate, h Response rate of the entire census, i Subjects were restricted to African-American physicians living in the United States