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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate analysis of risk factors associated with long delay among new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Vietnam

From: Delays in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis patients in Vietnam: a cross-sectional study

  Long total delay Long patient delay Long HCP delay
  N (%) OR aOR* (95% CI) N (%) OR aOR* (95% CI) N (%) OR aOR* (95% CI)
Sex          
   Men 189/1447 (12.8) 1 1 285/1,476 (19.3) 1 1 169/1449 (11.7) 1 1
   Women 115/586 (19.6) 1.7 1.6 (1.3–2.2) 149/593 (25.1) 1.4 1.3 (1.0–1.7) 78/579 (13.5) 1.2 1.2 (0.8–1.7)
Age (years)          
   0–24 18/186 (9.7) 1 1 30/186 (16.1) 1 1 20/184 (10.9) 1 1
   25–34 35/323 (10.8) 1.1 1.2 (0.6–2.2) 60/326 (18.4) 1.2 1.1 (0.7–1.9) 32/316 (10.1) 0.9 0.9 (0.5–1.8)
   35–44 72/443 (16.3) 1.8 1.8 (1.0–3.2) 81/439 (18.5) 1.2 1.1 (0.6–1.8) 61/434 (14.1) 1.3 1.2 (0.6–2.2)
   45–54 66/374 (17.7) 2.0 2.1 (1.2–3.8) 81/375 (21.6) 1.4 1.2 (0.7–2.0) 44/369 (11.9) 1.1 1.2 (0.6–2.3)
   55–64 38/249 (15.3) 1.7 1.4 (0.7–2.7) 61/251 (24.3) 1.7 1.1 (0.7–2.0) 24/246 (9.8) 0.9 0.9 (0.4–1.9)
   65+ 73/455 (16.0) 1.8 0.9 (0.8–2.6) 113/458 (24.7) 1.7 1.2 (0.7–2.0) 65/446 (14.6) 1.4 1.6 (0.8–2.9)
Health care provider visited initially because of cough          
   District health center 78/617 (12.6) 1 1 197/620 (31.8) 1 1 7/611 (1.2) 1 1
   Commune health post 46/333 (13.8) 1.0 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 92/339 (27.1) 0.8 0.6 (0.4–0.8) 22/330 (6.7) 5.8 6.3 (2.6–15.2)
   Public hospital 39/357 (10.9) 0.8 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 77/260 (21.4) 0.6 0.8 (0.6–1.2) 15/355 (4.2) 3.2 3.3 (1.3–8.3)
   Pharmacy 81/322 (25.2) 2.3 4.3 (2.9–6.5) 18/326 (5.5) 0.1 0.2 (0.1–0.4) 135/321 (42.1) 59.0 66.0 (29.6–147.3)
   Private physician 43/337 (12.8) 1.0 1.7 (1.1–2.6) 31/339 (9.1) 0.2 0.4 (0.2–0.6) 54/331 (16.3) 15.6 16.1 (7.1–36.6)
   Traditional healer 5/31 (16.1) 1.3 2.0 (0.7–5.7) 5/32 (15.6) 0.4 0.5 (0.2–1.4) 8/29 (27.6) 31.8 41.5 (13.3–129.3)
   Other 13/44 (22.8) 1.9 2.3 (1.1–4.9) 14/59 (23.7) 0.7 0.8 (0.4–1.5) 7/57 (12.3) 9.9 10.6 (3.4–33.3)
Area          
   Rural 159/1016 (15.7) 1 1 245/1023 (24.0) 1 1 120/1002 (12.0) 1 1
   Urban 99/800 (12.4) 0.8 1.0 (0.7–1.4) 109/798 (13.7) 0.5 0.7 (0.5–0.9) 111/673 (14.2) 1.2 1.6 (1.1–2.2)
   Remote 47/253 (18.6) 1.3 1.6 (1.1–2.3) 80/254 (31.5) 1.5 1.2 (0.8–1.7) 17/248 (6.9) 0.5 1.4 (0.8–2.6)
Region          
   South 134/1302 (10.3) 1 1 143/1305 (11.0) 1 1 175/1280 (13.7) 1 1
   North 129/558 (23.1) 2.6 3.8 (2.7–5.4) 261/561 (46.5) 7.4 4.9 (3.7–6.5) 28/547 (5.1) 0.3 1.0 (0.6–1.6)
   Central 42/209 (20.1) 2.3 2.9 (1.9–4.4) 20/209 (14.4) 1.5 1.4 (0.9–2.2) 45/207 (21.7) 1.8 3.0 (1.9–4.8)
Total 305/2069 (14.7)    434/2075 (20.9)    248/2034 (12.2)   
  1. Long total delay: ≥ 12 weeks. Long patient delay: ≥ 6 weeks. Long HCP delay: ≥ 6 weeks. * Adjusted for variables of sex, age, initial visit, area and region in the model. OR: Odds ratio; aOR: adjusted odds ratio. 95% CI: 95% confident interval. HCP: Health care provider.