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Table 3 Logistic regression analysis of factors predicting use of illegal drug in Australia during their current backpacking vacation

From: Effects of backpacking holidays in Australia on alcohol, tobacco and drug use of UK residents

   Used any illegal drug1 Cannabis Ecstasy Cocaine Amphetamine Types2
   AOR (95%CI) P3 AOR (95%CI) P AOR (95%CI) P AOR (95%CI) P AOR (95%CI) P
Survey area Cairns Ref   ** Ref   **     Ref   **    
  Sydney 1.74 (1.21–2.51)   1.86 (1.27–2.72)      17.67 (2.33–134.12)     
Age 18 to 20     Ref   *          
  21 to 24     1.56 (1.05–2.33) *          
  25 to 35     1.01 (0.66–1.54) NS          
Sex Female Ref   *** Ref   *** Ref   **       
  Male 1.80 (1.31–2.46)   1.85 (1.35–2.55)   1.70 (1.2–2.41)        
Australia only destination4 No     Ref   ** Ref   *       
  Yes     1.64 (1.13–2.37)   1.49 (1.03–2.17)        
Abroad with partner/spouse Yes Ref   *** Ref   *** Ref   *       
  No 2.18 (1.5–3.16)   2.08 (1.42–3.03)   1.60 (1.05–2.42)        
Stay to date (weeks) 2 to 4 Ref   ***    *** Ref   *** Ref   *    
  >4 to 12 1.77 (1.23–2.55) ** 1.63 (1.13–2.36) ** 2.33 (1.55–3.5) *** 1.56 (0.65–3.74) NS    
  >12 2.34 (1.62–3.39) *** 2.42 (1.67–3.5) *** 3.10 (2.08–4.63) *** 3.08 (1.29–7.4) *    
Total stay (weeks) 2 to 12           Ref   *    
  >12 to 40           0.43 (0.16–1.14) NS    
  >40           0.95 (0.37–2.46) NS    
Nights clubbing per week <= 1 Ref   ** Ref   ** Ref   **       
  2 to 4 1.84 (1.24–2.72) ** 1.70 (1.14–2.54) ** 2.49 (1.51–4.11) ***       
  5 or more 2.85 (1.57–5.18) ** 2.58 (1.43–4.65) ** 2.79 (1.46–5.3) **       
Daily alcohol-Australia5 No Ref   * Ref   ** Ref   *     Ref   *
  Yes 1.42 (1.01–2.01)   1.64 (1.17–2.31)   1.48 (1.05–2.1)      1.74 (1.1–2.75)  
Daily tobacco-Australia5 No Ref   *** Ref   *** Ref   *** Ref   *** Ref   ***
  Yes 3.24 (2.35–4.47)   2.92 (2.13–4.01)   2.80 (2.03–3.86)   3.29 (1.87–5.77)   2.37 (1.5–3.77)  
  1. Stay remaining (weeks) and whether individuals had had to visit a hospital or doctor in Australia were included in the analysis but were not significant for any types of substance use. For all other independent variables relationships that were not significant are left blank. Reference categories are identified with 'Ref' and overall levels of significance for each independent variable are presented in the same row as the reference category. AOR = Adjusted Odds Ratio; CI = Confidence Intervals.
  2. 1Cannabis, Ecstasy, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, Crystal Meth, Cocaine, Crack, LSD, Ketamine, GHB, Heroin and Steroids.
  3. 2Includes Amphetamine, Methamphetamine and Crystal Meth.
  4. 3 Significance is shown as * P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, NS = not significant.
  5. 4Travelling from the UK to Australia and back without holiday periods in other countries on either route.
  6. 5 Here daily is defined as anyone reporting use five or more days a week.