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Table 2 Crude and adjusted a prevalence odds ratio (POR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for specific symptoms by exposure category group

From: Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan

Symptoms N Pr b Crude POR 95% CI Adjusted POR 95% CI
Ocular Symptoms       
Sore eyes       
Control B 12 11.9 1.0 --- 1.0 ---
Control A 20 24.1 2.4 1.1–5.2 2.4 1.0–5.6
Exposed 132 61.1 11.7 6.0–22.6 11.9 5.7–24.9
Itchy eyes       
Control B 16 15.8 1.0 --- 1.0 ---
Control A 18 21.7 1.5 0.7–3.1 1.5 0.7–3.4
Exposed 118 54.6 6.4 3.5–11.6 5.9 3.0–11.7
Watery eyes       
Control B 13 12.9 1.0 --- 1.0 ---
Control A 16 19.3 1.6 0.7–3.6 1.5 0.6–3.5
Exposed 103 47.7 6.2 3.2–11.7 5.3 2.6–10.9
Red eyes       
Control B 8 7.9 1.0 --- 1 ---
Control A 12 14.5 2.0 0.8–5.1 2.4 0.9–6.6
Exposed 90 41.7 8.3 3.8–18.0 8.5 3.6–19.7
Respiratory symptoms       
Dry throat       
Control B 25 24.8 1.0 ---   ---
Control A 22 26.5 1.1 0.6–2.1 0.9 0.5–1.9
Exposed 140 64.8 5.6 3.3–9.5 4.7 2.5–8.6
Scratchy throat       
Control B 22 21.8 1.0 --- 1.0 ---
Control A 18 21.7 1.0 0.5–2.0 0.8 0.4–1.7
Exposed 129 59.7 5.3 3.1–9.2 3.5 1.9–6.5
Sore throat       
Control B 16 15.8 1.0 --- 1.0 ---
Control A 18 21.7 1.5 0.7–3.1 1.2 0.5–2.7
Exposed 113 52.3 5.8 3.2–10.6 3.8 1.9–7.4
Cough       
Control B 18 17.8 1.0 --- 1.0 ---
Control A 12 14.5 0.8 0.4–1.7 0.6 0.2–1.4
Exposed 94 43.5 3.6 2.0–6.3 2.3 1.2–4.4
Shortness of breath after spill c       
Control B 2 1.0 ---    ---
Control A 15 18.1 10.9 2.4–49.3   
Exposed 110 50.9 51.4 12.4–213.6   
Difficulty in breathing after spill       
Control B 0 0.0 ---   ---  
Control A 1 1.2     
Exposed 22 10.2     
Wheezing after spill       
Control B 0 0 ---   ---  
Control A 8 9.6     
Exposed 42 19.4     
Wheezing with shortness of breath after spill       
Control B 0 0 ---   ---  
Control A 1 1.2     
Exposed 13 6.0     
Skin symptoms       
Itchy Skin c       
Control B 5 5.0 1.0 ---   ---
Control A 6 7.2 1.5 0.4–5.1   
Exposed 75 34.7 10.2 4.0–26.1   
Skin irritation c       
Control B 4 4.0 1.0 ---   ---
Control A 2 2.4 0.6 0.1–3.4   
Exposed 54 25.0 8.1 2.8–23.0   
Nervous system symptoms       
Nausea/vomitingc       
Control B 7 6.9 1.0 ---   ---
Control A 12 14.5 2.3 0.9–6.1   
Exposed 84 38.9 8.5 3.8–19.3   
Headache       
Control B 29 28.7 1.0 --- 1.0 ---
Control A 18 21.7 0.7 0.3–1.4 0.6 0.3–1.2
Exposed 138 63.9 4.4 2.6–7.3 3.1 1.7–5.5
Dizziness c       
Control B 7 6.9 1.0 ---   ---
Control A 9 10.8 1.6 0.6–4.6   
Exposed 75 34.7 7.1 3.2–16.2   
Irritability       
Control B 4 4.0 1.0 --- 1.0 ---
Control A 7 8.4 2.2 0.6–7.9 1.6 0.4–5.9
Exposed 77 35.6 13.4 4.8–37.9 11.3 3.8–34.2
Weakness of extremities c       
Control B 4 4.0 1.0 ---   ---
Control A 12 14.5 0.5 0.2–1.3   
Exposed 91 42.1 2.6 1.4–4.9   
Other symptoms       
Fever       
Control B 9 8.9 1.0 --- 1.0 ---
Control A 7 8.4 0.9 0.3–2.6 1.0 0.4–3.1
Exposed 65 30.1 4.4 2.1–9.3 4.5 1.9–10.3
Loss of appetite c       
Control B 9 8.9 1.0 ---   ---
Control A 4 4.8 0.5 0.2–1.7   
Exposed 72 33.3 5.1 2.4–0.7   
General fatigue       
Control B 27 26.7 1.0 --- 1.0 ---
Control A 22 26.5 1.0 0.5–1.9 0.9 0.4–1.8
Exposed 116 53.7 3.2 1.9–5.3 3.1 1.7–5.7
  1. a Models adjusted for age, gender, education, smoking, dust allergy, chemical allergy, house on the main road and anxiousness about health effect of oil spill.
  2. b Pr = number of subjects with the specific symptom in the specific exposure category/total number of subjects in that category.
  3. c Numbers in some cells are small, hence adjusted estimates may not be reliable.