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Table 6 health and social outcomes (validated measurement instruments), studies with a control or comparison group (studies included in the review)

From: A systematic review of the health, social and financial impacts of welfare rights advice delivered in healthcare settings

Authors (date) Outcome measure Nature of control/comparison group Random allocation? Control group N at baseline Intervention group N at baseline Control group mean score at baseline Intervention group mean score at baseline Follow up period Control N at follow up Intervention N at follow up Control group mean score at follow up Intervention group man score at follow up p-value*
Abbott & Hobby (1999)[79] SF36 physical functioning (change in score) Those whose income didn't increase following advice allocated to comparison group No 20 48 NR NR 6 months 20 48 0 2.4 p > 0.05
  SF36 role functioning physical (change in score)   No 20 48 NR NR 6 months 20 48 -2.5 2.1 p > 0.05
  SF36 bodily pain (change in score)   No 20 48 NR NR 6 months 20 48 1 -0.5 p > 0.05
  SF36 general health (change in score)   No 20 48 NR NR 6 months 20 48 2.5 3.3 p > 0.05
  SF36 vitality (change in score)   No 20 48 NR NR 6 months 20 48 -7 7.7 p = 0.001
  SF36 social functioning (change in score)   No 20 48 NR NR 6 months 20 48 -1.3 2.9 p > 0.05
  SF36 role functioning emotional (change in score)   No 20 48 NR NR 6 months 20 48 8.3 14.6 p > 0.05
  SF36 mental health (change in score)   No 20 48 NR NR 6 months 20 48 -4.8 7.2 p = 0.019
Abbott & Hobby (2002)[34] SF36 physical functioning Those whose income didn't increase following advice allocated to comparison group No 50 150 34 29.5 6 months 50 150 34.2 30.6 p = 0.65
  SF36 physical functioning   No 50 150 34 29.5 12 months 50 150 37.7 28.9 p = 0.17
  SF36 role functioning physical   No 50 150 15.5 18.9 6 months 50 150 24.5 28.1 p = 0.5
  SF36 role functioning physical   No 50 150 15.5 18.9 12 months 50 150 27 26 p = 0.74
  SF36 bodily pain   No 50 150 29.2 34.8 6 months 50 150 30 43.1 p = 0.013
  SF36 bodily pain   No 50 150 29.2 34.8 12 months 50 150 36.4 39.4 p = 0.71
  SF36 general health   No 50 150 35.6 31.7 6 months 50 150 34 32.3 p = 0.59
  SF36 general health   No 50 150 35.6 31.7 12 months 50 150 32.3 32.1 p = 0.35
  SF36 vitality   No 50 150 33.2 28.7 6 months 50 150 28.4 32.3 p = 0.13
  SF36 vitality   No 50 150 33.2 28.7 12 months 50 150 29.2 28.4 p = 0.26
  SF36 social functioning   No 50 150 45.8 42.3 6 months 50 150 52.5 50.2 p = 0.58
  SF36 social functioning   No 50 150 45.8 42.3 12 months 50 150 54.6 49.2 p = 0.58
  SF36 role functioning emotional   No 50 150 48.7 40.8 6 months 50 150 36.7 51.7 p = 0.17
  SF36 role functioning emotional   No 50 150 48.7 40.8 12 months 50 150 42.7 52.2 p = 0.02
  SF36 mental health   No 50 150 57.1 53 6 months 50 150 56 55.9 p = 0.84
  SF36 mental health   No 50 150 57.1 53 12 months 50 150 56 58.3 p = 0.03
Emanuel & Begum (2000)[90] HADS anxiety Those whose income didn't increase following advice allocated to comparison group No 28 12 12.03 12 9 months 28 13 11.14 12.58 p > 0.05
  HADS depression   No 28 12 8.21 9.75 9 months 28 13 7.86 9.33 p > 0.05
  MYMOP symptom 1   No 28 12 4.48 4.64 9 months 28 13 3.86 4.36 p > 0.05
  MYMOP symptom 2   No 28 12 3.59 4.67 9 months 28 13 2.41 5.33 p > 0.05
  MYMOP activity   No 28 12 4.17 5.7 9 months 28 13 3.83 5 p > 0.05
  MYMOP wellbeing   No 28 12 3.86 4.55 9 months 28 13 3.14 4.65 p > 0.05
  MYMOP profile   No 28 12 4.53 4.28 9 months 28 13 3.44 4.79 p > 0.05
  GP consultations in last 9 months Control identified as next in individual on practice register matched for age and sex. No 39 39 70 187 9 months 39 39 111 165 p > 0.05
  prescriptions in last 9 months   No 39 39 122 239 9 months 39 39 146 278 p > 0.05
  referrals to secondary care in last 9 months   No 39 39 3 21 9 months 39 39 5 18 p > 0.05
  Visits to A&E in last 9 months   No 39 39 0 1 9 months 39 39 2 0 p > 0.05
  practice nurse contacts in last 9 months   No 39 39 13 12 9 months 39 39 6 11 p > 0.05
  home visits in last 9 months   No 39 39 5 3 9 months 39 39 1 3 p > 0.05
  out of hours calls in last 9 months   No 39 39 2 3 9 months 39 39 3 5 p > 0.05
  social service referrals in last 9 months   No 39 39 0 0 9 months 39 39 0 0 p > 0.05
  cervical cancer screening in last 9 months   No 39 39 1 1 9 months 39 39 5 7 p > 0.05
Reading et al (2002)[72] Edinburgh postnatal depression scale Six practices recruited – three allocated to intervention group, three to control group. Yes 173 88 7.7 9.7 NR 153 66 7.1 8.1 p > 0.05
  Prevalence of maternal smoking   Yes 173 88 25 34 NR 153 66 20 36 p > 0.05
  Maternal non-routine GP visits per year   Yes 173 88 NR NR NR 153 66 3.1 3.5 p > 0.05
  Maternal prescriptions   Yes 173 88 NR NR NR 153 66 2.4 2.1 p > 0.05
  Child general health "very good"   Yes 173 88 NR NR NR 153 66 51 44 p > 0.05
  Child more than 2 minor illnesses in last 3 months   Yes 173 88 NR NR NR 153 66 18 22 p > 0.05
  Child accident requiring attention in last year   Yes 173 88 NR NR NR 153 66 10 6 p > 0.05
  Child behaviour problems   Yes 173 88 NR NR NR 153 66 5 10 p > 0.05
  Child sleeping problems   Yes 173 88 12 13 NR 153 66 12 14 p > 0.05
  Child currently breast fed or stopped aged >4 months   Yes 173 88 31 31 NR 153 66 23 17 p > 0.05
  Child non-routine GP visits per year   Yes 173 88 NR NR NR 153 66 4.2 4.2 p > 0.05
  Child prescriptions   Yes 173 88 NR NR NR 153 66 2.4 2 p > 0.05
Veitch (1995) GP[21] NHP total score Those identified by control practices who would have been referred had service been available. No 5 5 NR NR NR 5 5 NR NR p > 0.05
  NHP energy   No 5 5 NR NR NR 5 5 NR NR p > 0.05
  NHP pain   No 5 5 NR NR NR 5 5 NR NR p > 0.05
  NHP emotional reaction   No 5 5 NR NR NR 5 5 NR NR p > 0.05
  NHP sleep   No 5 5 NR NR NR 5 5 NR NR p > 0.05
  NHP social isolation   No 5 5 NR NR NR 5 5 NR NR p > 0.05
  NHP physical mobility   No 5 5 NR NR NR 5 5 NR NR p = 0.09
Veitch (1995) mental health[21] NHP total score Those identified by control mental health centres who would have been referred had service been available. No 12 36 NR NR NR 12 18 NR NR p = 0.4588
  NHP energy   No 12 36 NR NR NR 12 18 NR NR p = 0.2312
  NHP pain   No 12 36 NR NR NR 12 18 NR NR p = 0.0700
  NHP emotional reaction   No 12 36 NR NR NR 12 18 NR NR p = 0.0466
  NHP sleep   No 12 36 NR NR NR 12 18 NR NR p = 0.3095
  NHP social isolation   No 12 36 NR NR NR 12 18 NR NR p = 0.4872
  NHP physical mobility   No 12 36 NR NR NR 12 18 NR NR p = 0.1312
Dow & Boaz (1994)[23] applied for award Random allocation to intervention/control group Yes 389 387 0 0 6 months 311 303 20 63 p < 0.001
  applied for award   Yes 389 387 0 0 8 months 311 303 26 67 p < 0.05
  applied for award   Yes 389 387 0 0 11 months 311 303 26 67 p < 0.05
  received award   Yes 389 387 0 0 6 months 311 303 8 17 p < 0.05
  received award   Yes 389 387 0 0 8 months 311 303 12 22 p < 0.05
  received award   Yes 389 387 0 0 11 months 311 303 13 23 p < 0.051
  1. *comparison of change in score in intervention group with change in score in control or comparison group; SF36 = short form 36; MYMOP = Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile scale; GP = general practitioner; A&E = accident and emergency; NHP = Nottingham Health Profile; NR = not reported