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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratio for low BMI (< 18.5) by tobacco use* (Referent category was non-tobacco users with normal BMI, 18.5–25.0)

From: Association between tobacco use and body mass index in urban Indian population: implications for public health in India

  OR (95% CI) †
Tobacco use Men Women
Never users 1.0 1.0
Ever users
   Smoking 1.80 (1.65, 1.96) 1.59 (1.09, 2.32)
   Smokeless 1.28 (1.19, 1.38) 1.50 (1.43, 1.59)
   Mixed 1.83 (1.67, 2.00) 2.19 (1.40, 3.41)
Types of smoking**
   Cigarette 1.22 (1.11, 1.35) -
   Bidi 2.36 (2.16, 2.58) 2.01 (1.48, 2.74)
   Cigarette + bidi 2.64 (2.22, 3.13) -
Types of Smokeless
   Mishri 1.18 (1.05, 1.33) 1.41 (1.32, 1.50)
   Mishri + other 1.38 (1.26, 1.51) 1.72 (1.61, 1.83)
   Betel quid 1.23 (1.12, 1.36) 1.46 (1.33, 1.60)
   Other tobacco 1.37 (1.23, 1.53) 1.80 (1.53, 2.11)
   Areca nut 0.89 (0.64, 1.25)NS 1.18 (1.00, 1.40)NS
  1. *Results are controlled for age, educational status, mother tongue and religion
  2. †All ORs were significant at p < 0.0001 except the one marked NS
  3. **Those who smoked and used smokeless tobacco were counted as smokers