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Table 3 Descriptive statistics of important anthropometric, dietary and behavioral variables tested, by age group.

From: Design and descriptive results of the "Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study In preSchoolers": The GENESIS Study

Variables First Age Group (12–24 months old)
  Boys   Girls   P-value
Anthropometrical Mean ± s.d   Mean ± s.d   
Weight§(Kg) 12.7 ± 1.8   11.7 ± 1.8   <0.001
Height (cm) 85.4 ± 5.8   82.6 ± 4.8   <0.001
BMI (Kg/m2) -   -   -
  n % n %  
Underweight 1 1.0 2 2.1 0.573
At risk of overweight - - - - -
Overweight 16 16.8 12 12.6 0.380
Nutrient Intake Mean ± s.d   Mean ± s.d   
Energy§ (MJ/day) 5.35 ± 0.88   5.22 ± 0.75   0.312
(Kcal/day) 1277.4 ± 211.3   1246.9 ± 178.5   
Total Fat§ (gr/day) 53.0 ± 13.4   51.4 ± 11.6   0.394
Total Fat (% of Energy) 37.1 ± 5.2   36.9 ± 5.3   0.772
Saturated Fat§ (gr/day) 19.9 ± 7.4   19.3 ± 5.2   0.672
Saturated Fat§ (% of Energy) 13.8 ± 3.3   13.8 ± 2.7   0.910
Carbohydrates§ (gr/day) 154.0 ± 26.5   151.2 ± 24.9   0.472
Carbohydrates§ (% of Energy) 48.4 ± 5.3   48.6 ± 5.5   0.792
Protein§ (gr/ day) 52.2 ± 10.7   50.5 ± 9.6   0.287
Protein§ (% of Energy) 16.3 ± 1.8   16.2 ± 1.7   0.597
Behavioral Mean ± s.d   Mean ± s.d   
TV watching (hrs/day)* 0.55 ± 0.88   0.46 ± 0.80   0.671
L-VPA (hrs/week)* 1.45 ± 3.15   1.05 ± 2.29   0.498
Variables Second Age Group (25–36 months old)
  Boys   Girls   P-value
Anthropometrical Mean ± s.d   Mean ± s.d   
Weight§(Kg) 15.2 ± 2.5   14.7 ± 2.2   0.018
Height (cm) 95.4 ± 4.5   94.1 ± 4.5   0.008
BMI (Kg/m2) 17.2 ± 2.4   17.0 ± 2.0   0.208
  n % n %  
Underweight 9 3.5 7 3.3 0.919
At risk of overweight 48 18.6 39 18.5 0.973
Overweight 36 14.0 32 15.2 0.711
Nutrient Intake Mean ± s.d   Mean ± s.d   
Energy§ (MJ/day) 5.84 ± 0.95   5.61 ± 0.91   0.007
(Kcal/day) 1394.9 ± 227.5   1338.0 ± 218.6   
Total Fat§ (gr/day) 62.5 ± 13.6   59.3 ± 13.8   0.008
Total Fat (% of Energy) 40.2 ± 4.4   39.7 ± 4.9   0.238
Saturated Fat§ (gr/day) 23.1 ± 6.3   21.6 ± 5.9   0.004
Saturated Fat§ (% of Energy) 14.8 ± 2.7   14.4 ± 2.7   0.075
Carbohydrates§ (gr/day) 157.5 ± 29.6   152.5 ± 27.2   0.085
Carbohydrates§ (% of Energy) 45.2 ± 5.0   45.8 ± 5.2   0.264
Protein§ (gr/ day) 57.8 ± 11.7   55.2 ± 12.6   0.013
Protein§ (% of Energy) 16.6 ± 2.1   16.5 ± 2.3   0.465
Behavioral Mean ± s.d   Mean ± s.d   
TV watching (hrs/day)* 1.20 ± 1.20   1.18 ± 1.23   0.527
L-VPA (hrs/week)* 1.51 ± 2.63   1.21 ± 2.41   0.377
Variables Third Age Group (37–48 months old)
  Boys   Girls   P-value
Anthropometrical Mean ± s.d   Mean ± s.d   
Weight§(Kg) 17.3 ± 2.5   17.0 ± 2.7   0.098
Height (cm) 103.0 ± 4.7   102.1 ± 4.6   0.003
BMI (Kg/m2) 16.8 ± 1.8   16.6 ± 1.8   0.307
  n % n %  
Underweight 15 3.2 12 2.9 0.808
At risk of overweight 79 17.0 84 20.6 0.173
Overweight 90 19.4 62 15.2 0.106
Nutrient Intake Mean ± s.d   Mean ± s.d   
Energy§ (MJ/day) 6.04 ± 0.99   5.78 ± 0.99   <0.001
(Kcal/day) 1442.4 ± 237.1   1379.0 ± 237.3   
Total Fat§ (gr/day) 65.1 ± 14.3   62.3 ± 14.2   0.004
Total Fat (% of Energy) 40.4 ± 4.5   40.5 ± 4.6   0.857
Saturated Fat§ (gr/day) 23.5 ± 6.3   22.5 ± 6.3   0.024
Saturated Fat§ (% of Energy) 14.6 ± 2.8   14.6 ± 2.8   0.779
Carbohydrates§ (gr/day) 161.9 ± 30.1   154.6 ± 29.2   <0.001
Carbohydrates§ (% of Energy) 45.0 ± 4.8   45.0 ± 4.8   0.991
Protein§ (gr/ day) 59.8 ± 12.7   56.9 ± 12.6   <0.001
Protein§ (% of Energy) 16.6 ± 2.2   16.5 ± 2.1   0.505
Behavioral Mean ± s.d   Mean ± s.d   
TV watching (hrs/day)* 1.89 ± 1.53   1.81 ± 1.32   0.780
L-VPA (hrs/week)* 1.27 ± 2.52   1.09 ± 2.09   0.851
Variables Fourth Age Group (49–60 months old)
  Boys   Girls   P-value
Anthropometrical Mean ± s.d   Mean ± s.d   
Weight§(Kg) 19.6 ± 3.2   19.2 ± 3.4   0.116
Height (cm) 109.8 ± 4.8   108.8 ± 5.3   0.006
BMI (Kg/m2) 16.6 ± 1.9   16.6 ± 2.0   0.889
  n % n %  
Underweight 11 3.3 8 2.2 0.371
At risk of overweight 55 16.5 75 20.5 0.166
Overweight 63 18.9 73 20.0 0.704
Nutrient Intake Mean ± s.d   Mean ± s.d   
Energy§ (MJ/day) 6.18 ± 0.12   5.92 ± 0.11   0.009
(Kcal/day) 1474.9 ± 295.8   1414.1 ± 259.7   
Total Fat§ (gr/day) 66.3 ± 17.1   63.9 ± 15.5   0.081
Total Fat (% of Energy) 40.2 ± 5.0   40.5 ± 5.0   0.593
Saturated Fat§ (gr/day) 23.8 ± 7.2   22.7 ± 6.5   0.070
Saturated Fat§ (% of Energy) 14.5 ± 2.9   14.4 ± 2.9   0.948
Carbohydrates§ (gr/day) 167.6 ± 44.3   158.9 ± 39.2   0.014
Carbohydrates§ (% of Energy) 45.2 ± 6.4   44.8 ± 6.5   0.344
Protein§ (gr/ day) 60.5 ± 15.2   57.8 ± 13.7   0.028
Protein§ (% of Energy) 16.4 ± 2.5   16.3 ± 2.3   0.784
Behavioral Mean ± s.d   Mean ± s.d   
TV watching (hrs/day)* 2.31 ± 1.55   2.16 ± 1.45   0.167
L-VPA (hrs/week)* 1.10 ± 2.42   1.17 ± 2.13   0.092
  1. : The variable "Height" presented in the Table corresponds to recumbent length for children 1 to 2 years old and to standing height for children older than 2 years.
  2. §: Parameter was log-transformed
  3. *: The level of statistical significance was estimated with the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test