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Table 5 Association of parental educational and living conditions with health indicators of 6-year-old children in East Germany from 1991 to 2000. Results of multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses.

From: Preschool children's health and its association with parental education and individual living conditions in East and West Germany

Health indicator   Parental education Living condition
   Low parental educational level 1st step * Low parental educational level 2nd step ** Single child *** Small living space *** Unfavourable indoor air *** Damp housing condition *** Maternal smoking during pregnancy *** Living near a busy road ***
  Sample size Adjusted standardized means difference (95% confidence interval) – bold type if significant (p < 0.05)
Airway resistance [kPa•s/l] 1728 1.012 (0.989–1.035) 1.009 (0.985–1.032) 0.994 (0.969–1.019) 1.006 (0.981–1.030) 1.009 (0.980–1.038) 0.995 (0.961–1.030) 1.020 (0.981–1.059) 1.006 (0.981–1.030)
Total lung capacity [% predicted] 1356 0.991 (0.980–1.002) 0.991 (0.980–1.002) 1.005 (0.994–1.017) 1.001 (0.989–1.013) 0.988 (0.975–1.001) 1.007 (0.991–1.023) 0.996 (0.977–1.016) 1.008 (0.996–1.019)
Birth weight [g] 20500 0.981 (0.977–0.986) 0.982 (0.975–0.990)§a 0.995 (0.986–1.004)§b 0.985 (0.980–0.990) 0.990 (0.985–0.995) 0.996 (0.991–1.00) 0.995 (0.988–1.003) 0.953 (0.945–0.961) 0.998 (0.994–1.003)
Body height [cm] 19087 0.992 (0.991–0.994) 0.992 (0.990–0.995) 1.007 (1.005–1.008) 0.997 (0.995–0.998) 0.998 (0.997–1.000) 0.996 (0.993–0.998) 0.990 (0.988–0.992) 0.998 (0.997–0.999)
  Sample size Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) – bold type if significant (p < 0.05)
Overweight, BMI > 19 kg/m2 20547 1.45 (1.28–1.64) 1.44 (1.27–1.63) 1.26 (1.10–1.43) 1.13 (0.99–1.29) 0.89 (0.78–1.01) 0.87 (0.70–1.08) 1.06 (0.87–1.31) 0.96 (0.84–1.08)
Bronchitis, ever diagnosed 19878 0.71 (0.67–0.75) 0.69 (0.65–0.74) 0.96 (0.91–1.03) 0.98 (0.92–1.04) 1.02 (0.96–1.09) 1.25 (1.13–1.37) 1.03 (0.93–1.14) 1.11 (1.04–1.17)
More than 4 colds in the last 12 months 20059 0.83 (0.77–0.91) 0.80 (0.73–0.87)) 1.00 (0.91–1.10) 0.99 (0.91–1.08) 1.13 (1.03–1.23) 1.41 (1.25–1.60) 1.13 (0.98–1.30) 1.10 (1.00–1.19)
Frequent cough 20567 1.09 (0.98–1.22) 1.01 (0.90–1.14) 0.98 (0.86–1.11) 0.97 (0.85–1.09) 0.97 (0.86–1.10) 1.66 (1.42–1.95) 1.34 (1.12–1.61) 1.29 (1.14–1.45)
Sneeze attacks in the last 12 months 20123 0.84 (0.74–0.95) 0.78 (0.69–0.90) 1.32 (1.15–1.52) 1.12 (0.97–1.29) 0.92 (0.80–1.06) 1.52 (1.26–1.83) 1.12 (0.90–1.39) 1.29 (1.13–1.48)
Allergy, ever diagnosed 20071 0.61 (0.52–0.71)§a 0.86 (0.70–1.04)§b 0.60 (0.51–0.70)§a 0.85 (0.69–1.04)§b 1.15 (1.04–1.28) 1.00 (0.91–1.11) 1.07 (0.96–1.18) 1.09 (0.93–1.28) 0.97 (0.82–1.16) 1.10 (1.00–1.22)
Eczema, ever diagnosed 19783 0.61 (0.57–0.66) 0.63 (0.58–0.68) 1.00 (0.92–1.09) 0.92 (0.85–1.00) 0.90 (0.83–0.98) 1.15 (1.01–1.31) 0.80 (0.69–0.93) 1.03 (0.96–1.12)
Atopic eczema, day of investigation 2021 0.90 (0.68–1.18) 0.92 (0.69–1.21) 1.20 (0.89–1.61) 1.13 (0.84–1.52) 0.74 (0.54–1.01) 1.44 (0.97–2.14) 0.68 (0.39–1.17) 0.92 (0.69–1.22)
Specific IgE grass pollen positive 3204 0.75 (0.60–0.94) 0.81 (0.65–1.02) 1.04 (0.82–1.32) 0.91 (0.72–1.16) 0.70 (0.54–0.90) 1.03 (0.73–1.43) 0.67 (0.43–1.03) 1.00 (0.79–1.25)
Specific IgE house dust mite positive 3196 0.74 (0.59–0.94) 0.75 (0.59–0.96) 1.08 (0.84–1.40) 0.99 (0.77–1.28) 0.96 (0.73–1.27) 1.51 (1.10–2.08) 0.62 (0.39–0.99) 1.04 (0.81–1.32)
  1. * adjusted for gender, year of investigation and urban/rural residency; ** same as '*', but additionally adjusted for the six living conditions; *** same as '*', but additionally adjusted for parental education and the 5 other living conditions; § Interaction between year of investigation and parental education; a 1991; b 2000