Skip to main content

Table 4 Distribution of health indicators and living conditions of 6-year-old children in East and West Germany stratified by parental educational level.

From: Preschool children's health and its association with parental education and individual living conditions in East and West Germany

  Mean ± standard deviationa/Prevalence [%]b
  East Germany   West Germany  
  Parental education   Parental education  
  Low c High c   Low c High d  
Health indicators       
Airway resistance [10-1•kPa•s/l] 6.71 ± 1.60 6.61 ± 1.62 - 6.41 ± 1.53 6.14 ± 1.45 *
Total lung capacity [% predicted] 103 ± 11 104 ± 10 - 105 ± 11 105 ± 10 -
Birth weight [10•g] 330 ± 53 336 ± 53 * 334 ± 60 342 ± 57 *
Body height [cm] 119.7 ± 5.6 120.6 ± 5.4 * 120.2 ± 5.7 120.6 ± 5.4 *
Overweight, BMI > 19 kg/m2 6.6 4.6 * 8.9 4.9 *
Bronchitis, ever diagnosed 43.7 52.8 * 41.9 52.3 *
More than 4 colds in last 12 months 12.0 14.3 * 13.9 16.1 *
Frequent cough 6.6 6.3 - 8.0 7.4 *
Sneeze attacks in the last 12 months 4.5 5.4 * 5.8 5.9 -
Allergy, ever diagnosed 7.8 10.9 * 12.2 17.4 -
Eczema, ever diagnosed 12.9 19.1 * 11.2 17.4 *
Atopic eczema, day of investigation 11.1 12.3 - 7.0 9.3 -
Specific IgE grass pollen positive 9.7 12.8 * 10.1 11.7 -
Specific IgE house dust mite positive 8.5 11.1 * 12.0 14.0 -
Living conditions       
Single child 38.8 37.6 - 28.4 24.9  
Small living space 51.7 40.8 * 35.4 17.1 *
Unfavourable indoor air 52.3 49.2 * 16.3 16.1 -
Damp housing condition 12.7 8.2 * 6.4 3.3  
Maternal smoking during pregnancy 13.9 4.2 * 36.3 14.5 *
Living near a busy road 62.8 56.7 * 55.0 43.2 *
  1. a t-test (continuous variables); b chi-square test (dichotomous variables); c ≤ 10 year school; d > 10 year school; * p < 0.05