Skip to main content

Table 2 Distribution of health indicators, living conditions and parental educational level of 6-year-old children in East Germany stratified by urban/rural residency and year of investigation.

From: Preschool children's health and its association with parental education and individual living conditions in East and West Germany

  Mean ± standard deviation/Prevalence [%]  
  Total Residency a,b   Year of investigationc,d  
   Urban e Rural f   1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000  
Health indicators                
Airway resistance [10-1•kPa•s/l] 6.67 ± 1.64 6.64 ± 1.59 6.71 ± 1.73 - 6.76 ± 1.74 --g --g 6.52 ± 1.56 --g --g 6.63 ± 1.44 --g --g --g -
Total lung capacity [% predicted] 104 ± 11 102 ± 10 105.5 ± 11 * 101 ± 10 --g --g 106 ± 10 --g --g 107 ± 11 --g --g --g *
Birth weight [10•g] 333 ± 54 331 ± 54 336 ± 54 * 327 ± 51 331 ± 59 333 ± 53 332 ± 54 334 ± 56 335 ± 52 332 ± 53 336 ± 52 336 ± 56 340 ± 55 *
Body height [cm] 120.1 ± 5.5 119.9 ± 5.5 120.6 ± 5.5 * 119.5 ± 5.4 119.7 ± 5.4 120.0 ± 5.8 120.5 ± 5.4 120.0 ± 5.6 120.5 ± 5.3 120.4 ± 5.6 120.3 ± 5.7 120.4 ± 5.8 120.0 ± 5.5 *
Overweight, BMI > 19 kg/m2 5.6 5.5 5.8 - 3.5 3.9 5.2 5.7 5.8 6.1 7.0 7.6 6.3 8.0 *
Bronchitis, ever diagnosed 48.1 49.7 44.3 * 56.0 50.3 47.2 50.6 44.9 45.0 44.9 43.6 44.0 39.4 *
More than 4 colds in last 12 months 13.1 14.7 9.1 * 16.1 14.2 11.6 13.4 9.8 11.1 11.7 12.0 14.6 12.7 *
Frequent cough 6.4 7.3 4.2 * 10.0 7.4 6.2 6.0 6.4 4.7 4.9 4.5 5.3 4.5 *
Sneeze attacks in the last 12 months 5.0 5.7 3.2 * 4.8 2.9 3.0 4.4 4.0 4.2 6.7 6.6 6.5 7.7 *
Allergy, ever diagnosed 9.3 9.6 8.5 * 11.5 8.4 9.2 7.7 7.4 8.9 9.0 9.7 9.4 10.8 -
Eczema, ever diagnosed 16.9 16.1 15.4 - 14.7 12.1 13.8 15.0 15.0 16.4 18.0 18.1 20.9 20.0 *
Atopic eczema, day of investigation 11.7 12.4 10.1 - 17.7 --g --g 12.5 --g --g 11.2 --g --g 6.5 *
Specific IgE grass pollen positive 11.3 10.9 12.2 - 11.7 --g --g 10.8 --g --g 10.5 --g --g 12.1 -
Specific IgE house dust mite positive 9.8 9.6 10.4 - 10.1 --g --g 9.2 --g --g 9.7 --g --g 10.8 -
Living conditions                
Single child 38.2 41.5 30.3 * 30.9 30.2 33.6 38.5 39.5 41.7 46.6 45.4 41.2 44.7 *
Small living space 46.3 48.1 41.8 * 58.7 49.3 46.2 53.4 42.6 38.6 43.2 36.8 33.2 32.1 *
Unfavourable indoor air 50.8 53.8 43.5 * 62.5 73.7 61.5 50.6 58.7 47.3 37.1 36.6 31.7 27.2 *
Damp housing condition 10.5 11.7 7.6 * 9.4 11.0 11.4 11.6 13.3 13.5 10.2 9.8 9.1 6.0 *
Maternal smoking during pregnancy 9.2 10.1 7.3 * 12.2 7.6 7.5 6.3 7.0 6.4 10.7 12.1 11.5 12.4 *
Living near a busy road 59.9 61.8 55.2 * 55.6 59.8 62.8 63.0 63.3 60.8 59.6 58.8 58.6 57.1 -
Parental education                
Low parental educational level 51.9 49.9 56.7 * 48.6 52.4 50.1 50.2 50.9 49.7 53.8 58.0 57.1 54.7 *
  1. a t-test (continuous variables); b chi-square test (dichotomous variables); c t-test for correlation (continuous variables); d trend test (dichotomous variables); e Leipzig, Halle and Magdeburg; f Salzwedel, Gardelegen, Osterburg and Kloetze; g not investigated; * p < 0.05