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Table 4 Trends in HIV prevalence by selected socio-demographic characteristics in rural and urban areas of Zambia, results of multivariate logistic regression and chi square tests for linear trend, 1995–2003: Age group 15–49 years

From: Steep HIV prevalence declines among young people in selected Zambian communities: population-based observations (1995–2003)

    Males Females
    Adjusted Odds Ratio(95%CI): reference time, 1995   §MH χ2 for Linear trend, 1995–2003: Adjusted Odds Ratio(95%CI): reference time, 1995   §MH χ2 for Linear trend, 1995–2003:
    1999 2003 P value 1999 2003 P value
R Education (~age)       
   0–7 years 0.93(0.62–1.34) 0.72(0.47–1.09) 0.227 1.07(0.57–2.01) 1.03(0.62–1.72) 0.838
U   8–9 years 0.74(0.29–1.88) 0.84(0.28–2.46) 0.731 0.52(0.24–1.13) 0.50(0.22–1.14) 0.104
   ≥10 years 0.38(0.15–0.98) 0.44(0.22–0.87) 0.223 0.33(0.17–0.65) 0.29(0.08–0.96) 0.043
R Marital status Single 1.48(0.76–2.86) 0.50(0.22–1.12) 0.188 0.74(0.23–2.4) 0.31(0.06–1.49) 0.021
   Married 0.66(0.38–1.15) 0.63(0.42–0.96) 0.096 0.91(0.53–1.57) 0.82(0.49–1.37) 0.112
A Employed Yes 0.66(0.42–1.03 0.76(0.48–1.21 0.914 0.81(0.21–3.15) 0.73(0.22–2.42) 0.479
   No 1.03(0.57–1.84) 0.55(0.34–0.89) 0.026 0.82(0.48–1.38) 0.78(0.47–1.31) 0.055
  Travels Never 0.99(0.52–1.91) 1.36(0.86–2.16) 0.180 0.93(0.54–1.60 1.09(0.70–1.71) 0.644
L   Sometimes 0.66(0.44–0.98) 0.43(0.27–0.70) 0.019 0.76(0.33–1.71) 0.59(0.31–1.10) 0.024
   Often 0.76(0.21–2.75) 0.62(0.19–1.94) 0.563 0.92(0.23–3.67) 0.44(0.07–2.89) 0.051
  Duration lived <1 year 0.25(.10–0.63) 0.63(0.22–1.81 0.733 0.57(0.33–0.99) 0.79(0.35–1.82) 0.199
  (In current residence) 1–5 yrs 0.74(0.36–1.52) 0.57(0.26–1.28) 0.069 1.79(0.88–3.62) 1.41(0.74–2.69) 0.234
   ≥6 yrs 1.24(0.76–2.03) 0.95(0.60–1.51) 0.937 0.45(0.23–0.89) 0.48(0.26–0.88) 0.011
  Migration Village 0.72(0.43–1.22) 0.99(0.51–1.94) 0.922 1.12(0.58–2.16) 1.04(0.55–1.97) 0.840
  (origin 5 years) Town 0.48(0.22–0.98) 0.30(0.13–0.72) 0.041 1.75(0.99–3.01) 1.31(0.75–2.32) 0.586
  Given birth Yes -- --   0.75(0.42–1.34) 0.58(0.30–1.11) 0.019
  (ever): age, 15–29 No -- --   0.56(0.23–1.33) 0.27(0.07–0.99) 0.012
U Education (~age)       
   0–7 years 1.66(0.80–3.42) 1.34(0.72–2.49) 0.398 0.83(0.59–1.16) 1.11(0.71–1.76) 0.498
R   8–9 years 0.42(0.14–1.26) 0.52(0.26–1.06) 0.305 1.10(0.76–1.61) 0.66(0.39–1.08) 0.179
   ≥10 years 1.03(0.72–1.49) 0.55(0.40–0.74) 0.001* 0.91(0.61–1.34) 0.53(0.39–0.72) 0.001*
B Marital status Single 0.95(0.62–1.46) 0.51(0.33–0.79) 0.001* 1.05(0.69–1.58) 0.49(0.35–0.69) 0.001*
   Married 1.04(0.72–1.52) 0.71(0.47–0.98) 0.035 0.92(0.74–1.14) 0.73(0.57–0.94) 0.002
A Employed Yes 0.97(0.69–1.36) 0.64(0.44–0.95) 0.001 0.98(0.67–1.41) 0.69(0.51–0.95) 0.018
   No 0.99(0.60–1.64) 0.52(0.37–0.74) 0.001* 0.93(0.76–1.15) 0.63(0.47–0.85) 0.001*
N Travels Never 0.81(0.57–1.16) 0.57(0.32–1.02) 0.001 0.88(0.70–1.11) 0.64(0.49–0.83) 0.003
   Sometimes 1.14(0.86–1.49) 0.52(0.34–0.81) 0.001* 1.06(0.84–1.35) 0.71(0.52–0.97) 0.008
   Often 1.11(0.55–2.21) 0.80(0.38–1.70) 0.189 0.77(0.23–2.59) 0.44(0.23–0.82) 0.002
  Duration lived <1 year 1.62(0.83–3.19) 0.47(0.28–0.76) 0.052 0.83(0.54–1.27) 0.66(0.45–0.97) 0.196
  (In current residence) 1–5 yrs 0.85(0.54–1.35) 0.71(0.47–1.09) 0.007 0.83(0.59–1.16) 0.56(0.40–0.79) 0.001*
   ≥6 yrs 0.90(0.56–1.46) 0.53(0.29–0.99) 0.001* 1.31(0.95–1.81) 0.86(0.57–1.33) 0.129
  Migration Village 1.01(0.39–2.59) 0.39(0.09–1.54) 0.314 0.98(0.42–2.32) 0.93(0.42–2.09) 0.651
  (origin 5 years) Town 1.03(0.63–1.68) 0.69(0.49–0.96) 0.001 0.83(0.64–1.06) 0.58(0.45–0.74) 0.001*
  Given birth Yes -- --   0.73(0.63–0.35) 0.51(0.38–0.67) 0.001*
  (ever): age, 15–29 No -- --   0.87(0.64–1.19) 0.52(0.35–0.75) 0.042
  1. Notes: 1. § MH denotes Mantel-Haenszel chi square for linear trend, (1 degree of freedom) with continuity correction and statistically significant trends are highlighted in bold b) *signifies P < 0.001 2. Variables included in the model per strata were age group, marital status, employment, religion, travel patterns, duration lived in current residence, migration origin in last five years and ever given birth for females 3. The effect of education was significantly different between age groups (interaction P = 0.021 in 1995, P < 0.001 in 1999&2003), hence the "age*education" interaction term included in the models. 4. Samples size in 1995, 1999 and 2003 and were 3013, 3506 and 4466 respectively